Problems of World History <p><strong>Problems of World History: </strong><strong>Scientific Journal</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN <span style="color: #000000; font-family: Arial; font-size: 13.3333px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">2707-6776</span><br></strong></p> <p>The scientific journal "Problems of World History" is included in the list of professional editions of Ukraine in which the results of the dissertation works for obtaining the scientific degrees of doctor and candidate of sciences in the specialty "historical sciences" can be published.</p> <p><strong>Type:</strong> print edition</p> <p>The publication publishes articles, reviews of scientific works, chronicles of scientific life.</p> <p><strong>Issues: </strong>coverage of fundamental and applied scientific researches of problems of world-historical process and cultural-civilizational development.</p> <p><strong>Founder </strong><strong>and publisher</strong><strong>:</strong> State Institution "Institute of World History of the NAS of Ukraine"</p> <p><strong>Founded in 2015</strong></p> <p><strong>Branch of science:</strong> historical sciences</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> 4 times a year</p> <p><strong>Registered:</strong> <em>State registration certificate </em>КВ 21441-11241Р<em> issued by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine </em>04.08.2015<em>.</em></p> The State Institution «Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine» en-US Problems of World History 2707-6776 Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Regionalism: Problems of Interaction of Border Regions <p>The scientific literature presents various definitions of the concepts of ‘regionalism’, ‘regionalization’ and ‘interregional interaction’. The processes associated with globalization and integration manifest themselves in the form of consolidation of macro-regional ties. The formation of big macroeconomic zones of priority cooperation covers neighbouring and geographically close countries. The consolidation of large economic spaces is accompanied by the creation of regional economic organizations and integration communities aimed at deepening trade, economic cooperation and regional division of labour.</p> <p>In parallel with the formation of large economic and political regional associations at the macro level, globalization has accelerated the process of diversification of territorial administration functions within individual states. The redistribution of power within individual countries is seen as a parallel process of regionalization at the grassroots level. The signs of regionalism at the micro level include the increasing role of subnational territorial communities, the growth of their interest in establishing closer cooperation with the border territories of neighboring countries.</p> <p>In the most general sense, the author considers regionalism as a dynamic feature of international political and economic processes, indicated by the diversification of management functions at different levels of socio-political organization. The methodology of political science distinguishes the manifestations of regionalisms at the macro and micro levels. Various manifestations of regionalism are embodied in the design of large economic spaces, the redistribution of power within individual countries, increasing the level of regional self-government, development of interregional contacts and interregional integration ties between neighbouring and/or geographically close countries.</p> <p>The practice of interregional cooperation is most successfully applied within the framework of multilateral integration associations, primarily in the EU and in the wider European space covered by the scope of European conventions and decisions in the field of spatial cooperation of territorial communities and authorities, including local and regional self-government. Interaction between subnational regions includes the conclusion of agreements between territorial communities of neighbouring countries, the creation of interregional associations and contractual networks of interregional cooperation.</p> S. Tolstov Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 7 41 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-1 The Rise of the White Serbia in the Light of the Merovingians’ Thuringia Policy <p>The study offers an analytical overview of the international relations in the territory of the Middle Elbe basin from the 530s until the early 8<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century, specifically concerned with the policy of the Merovingian kings towards the former Thuringian kingdom lands and the issue of the rise of White Serbia. The author considers Frankish policy as an influencing factor in slavisation of the discussed region while examining the impact of a wider spectrum of possible factors, in particular, the changes in ecology and the Avar presence in the Middle Danube region. The chronology of the Serbian settlers’ arrival into the Middle Elbe valley as well as their political &amp; legal status in that land are specified. The author discusses the issue of the White Serbs’ initial foreign policy orientation and investigates the causes, direction, time &amp; consequences of its change. The main research content is complemented by the excurses on the climatic crisis of the&nbsp;Late Antique Little Ice Age and chosen aspects of the&nbsp;Avars’ &amp; the&nbsp;White Serbs’ early ethnic history.</p> <p>The author develops W.&nbsp;Fritze’s hypothesis of the Merovingians’ active involvement and support of the Serbian immigration into the Middle Elbe and Saale region together with an idea of anti-Avar direction of this measure. Whereas, the results of the study have rejected the assumptions, that the Elbe Germans abandonment of the area to the east of the Elbe and Saale at the end of the third quarter of the 6<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century was caused by the Frankish-Avar agreement or Slavic pressure. The author concludes that the first group of the Serbian settlers arrived to the Middle Elbe and Saale from the North-Western Bohemia during the Austrasian king Theudebert&nbsp;ІІ’s reign, probably, at the invitation of the famous Brunhilda, receiving the lands in Thuringia’s border zone as the Frankish foederati. The interconnection between the initial successes of the Merovingians’ Serbian policy in the east of Thuringia during the first decades of the 7<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;century and the settlement of the Croats &amp; Serbs in the Balkans by the emperor Heraclius is revealed. It has been demonstrated that further expansion of the White Serbia’s territory from the 630s was of spontaneous nature and took place under the circumstances of the collapsed Merovingian control over Thuringia.</p> R. Vatseba Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 42 84 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-2 Czech Warriors on the Field of the Battle of Grunwald: Participation and Search for Contacts with Polond and Lithuania-Rus’ <p>The article examines the problem of the participation of soldiers from Bohemia in the events of the Battle of Grunwald, both on the side of the Polish-Lithuanian forces and on the side of the Teutonic Order. The state of research of the topic, its place in the study of Grunwald is outlined. The urgency of studying the Czech military component in the armies of both sides was emphasized, given the need to further debunk the myth of the German danger and the pan-Slavic alliance. The author analyzes which Polish-Lithuanian and Order banners fought Czech mercenaries and names the names of their leaders known from sources. The “Czech” episodes in the work of Jan Dlugosz are analyzed, it is noted that the version of the participation of mercenaries from Bohemia in the battle reflects the negative attitude of the Polish chronicler to the Czech Republic. The issue of participation in the events of the war with the Order of the future leader of the Hussites Jan Žižka was raised, the opinion is defended that he fought in the ranks of the Polish-Lithuanian army. Attention is drawn to the involvement of Lithuanian-Rus’ Prince Zygmunt Korybutovych in the Battle of Grunwald, as well as to his further role in Czech-Rus’ relations in the wake of Hussite events. It is noted that the Battle of Grunwald was a decisive event that influenced the gradual withdrawal of Bohemia from the alliance with the Order, at least for those of its forces who later participated in the Hussite events and established contact with Wladyslaw II Jagiello and Vytautas. An episode of Jan Hus's correspondence with the Polish king is mentioned in the context of how Polish propaganda created the myth of its own peace victory immediately after the war. The author concludes that the events of the Battle of Grunwald partly determined for Bohemia its further geopolitical cooperation in Central and Eastern Europe and contributed to the restoration of communication with Lithuania, Poland and Rus’. At the same time, it was emphasized that Grunwald did not become the final severance of relations with the Order, with which Bohemia, like the Kingdom of Rus’, had had strong ties for centuries.</p> S. Kozak Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 85 97 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-3 Ukrainian Intelligence in 1917-1921: Formation of Civil Position <p>The article analyzes the activities of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in 1917-1921. The author aims to determine the achievements and losses received by the Ukrainian scientific intelligentsia during 1917-1921. Attention is paid to their contribution to the development of science and culture of the period when the regimes in the Ukrainian lands were constantly changing and power passed from one to another. At the same time, the policies of these regimes differed radically depending on the foreign policy orientation and program principles of their leaders. At the same time, the Ukrainian intelligentsia reacted differently to the change of government. It was made an attempt to divide representatives of the Ukrainian intelligentsia into groups in accordance with their ideological and ideological orientation. The impact of political changes on key branches of science and culture is explored. It is determined that, on the one hand, the position of scientific institutions was unsatisfactory while cultural branches were revived and developed actively.</p> <p>The article is written using the principle of systematization, methods of comparison and generalization, structuring and analysis. The scientific novelty of the study is justified by the determination of the factors that influenced the formation of scientific and cultural interpretations of the future existence of the Ukrainian intelligentsia during the Ukrainian revolution on the basis of analyzed historiography and archival materials, as well as identifying major achievements and errors in this information and worldview. The author emphasizes the importance of further scientific research of the problem, because today, despite a certain existing block of work on the topic, there are issues that need further study and reinterpretation.</p> T. Shevchyk Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 98 109 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-4 The United States Position on the Military Assistance to Great Britain at the Beginning of the World War II (1939 – 1941) <p>The article examines the problem of relations between the two leading countries of the world – Great Britain and the United States, which had a significant impact on the international political situation in the world in 1939–1941, and still have nowadays. As a vector of research, the author used the factor of American military aid to the British governments of N.&nbsp;Chamberlain and W.&nbsp;Churchill to fight against Nazi Germany. According to this, the author aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis and his own assessment of the United States’ position on providing Britain with the necessary weapons and ammunition at the beginning of World War II.</p> <p>During the research the author used a comparative-historical method to analyze various factors influencing the US position on military assistance to London, a problem-chronological method to present the material in chronological order, and a statistical – to analyze the attitude of ordinary Americans on important decisions of the Roosevelt administration. That allowed the author to analyze and rethink the evolution of the United States’ position on Britain in the problem of providing military aid regarding the current geopolitical situation.</p> <p>The author works out that under the necessity of supporting London with various types of weapons, armament and ammunition to fight against Hitler’s regime the United States significantly changed the principles of its foreign policy – from “isolationism” in 1939 to its cancellation in the late 1941. At the same time, according to the author, this process was caused by a number of factors, including both the “isolationist” opposition in Congress and the Roosevelt administration’s gradual understanding of the Nazi regime threat to the security of the United States.</p> T. Tkachuk Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 110 121 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-5 The Lebanese Political Dynasties: “the fine-tuning” <p>A small in size, Lebanese Republic is known for it’s a confessional segmentation, a clan orientation and a predominant heredity of the local political elite. A oligarchic nature of a political regime of the country of cedars is due to a traditional clan structure of a lebanese society. For centuries, a leading role in Lebanon was played by the territorial-confessional clans, that wereheaded by the sheikhs–zaims (zuama). This system has migrated to a modern lebanese politics. At the same time, it has the support among both a old one and a new one elite. Therefore, a clear understanding of the involvement of the leaders of the power structures of the Lebanese Republic in a certain political dynasty is necessary for understanding a current state of affairs in the country, as well as to predict the nature of its further political development.</p> <p>So, the primary criterion, which was determines the sequence of the coverage of the activity of the political dynasties of the country of cedars is the degree of the influence on a today’s Lebanese realities of one or another of the current “zaims”. Based on this principle, we will talk about a a family-clan context of the first three persons of the state: the Prime Minister, the President (Speaker) of the National Assembly and the President of Lebanese Republic, as well as a few of the other leaders of the influential or at least the appreciable political forces, that are represented in parliament, which was elected in 2018 (except of H.&nbsp;Nasrallah and S.&nbsp;Geagea). In particular, the article contains an analysis of the possibilities of the creating the political dynasties by the current Prime Minister N.&nbsp;Mikati and Speaker of Parliament N.&nbsp;Berri, the prospects for a further existence of the newly founded political dynasties of the families of Aoun and al-Hariri, as well as the reasons for a political survival of the hereditary Lebanese zaim families Jumblatt and Frangieh. The main conclusion of this publication is the statement about a prospect of a total preservation of the principle of the nepotism in a lebanese politics for at least the coming decades.</p> A. Zelinskyi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 122 157 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-6 Сountering СOVID-19 as a tool for Hybrid Influence of Russia and China on Regional Subsystems of International Relations: European and Asian Dimensions <p>In the XXI century the system of international relations has undergone transformations, including non-traditional determinants. This research drew attention to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on modernization of the policies of great powers, which began to use pandemic countermeasures as a tool of their influence on future post-COVID international order. The authors analyze the peculiarities of using “hard power” (economic pressure) and “soft power” (economic aid, cultural interaction), and sometimes a combination of these tools on the example of Russia and China in order to lobby their own position under the pandemic of COVID-19 in the relevant geopolitically close regions – Europe and Southeast Asia. This research analyses all above mentioned peculiarities based on chronological period – at the beginning of pandemic situation in 2020.</p> <p>It was found that Russia most actively used the effects of the beginning of global pandemic on the European direction of foreign policy, under the impact of energy factor and the formation of the image of “peacemaker” and the role of “messiah” in the region. In the study, Italy is an example of the use of hybrid influence from Russia, the spread of fakes and the presentation of the “weakness” of the EU at the beginning of the pandemic in a rapid political response to the threat. Southeast Asia became the region of Chinese foreign policy in counteracting COVID-19, where China’s “mask diplomacy” acts as a countermeasure to overcome conflict in the South China Sea, form a system of “subordination” and realization the idea of “community of common destiny”.</p> <p>The findings reveal that Russia and China can be characterized as states that have political regimes with special tools and mechanisms for policy implementation. Beijing and Moscow not only aim to strengthen their influence in neighboring regions, but also to oppose the United States. Analyzing political actions and mechanism that Russia and China used at the beginning of pandemic, the authors confirmed that both countries aim to use “vaccine diplomacy” as an effective tool for influencing the coronavirus international order.</p> Oleksandr Shevchuk Iryna Tykhonenko Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 158 182 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-7 The Swedish Tradition of State Care for Cultural Heritage <p>The Nordic countries are notable for their ancient practice of reasonable care of their historical monuments. There were no ‘laws’ in the strict sense – it was replaced by numerous royal decrees. The decree of the King of Sweden, made in 1886, about patronage and protection of antiquities had the same goals as the parliamentary act about monuments. Sweden is in a particularly good position, because the state has long since taken over the protection of all antiquities in the country and it has established the principle that monuments and artefacts uncovered by excavations on private land do not come under the custody of the owner, but are the subject of state care. At the end of the 19th century it was not possible to establish this principle by direct legislation, but in Sweden it was due to the traditional custom that monuments and their protection have been of incalculable benefit. In this regard, Swedish legislation on the protection of cultural heritage is considered the oldest in the world. The tradition of state care for historical monuments here goes back some four centuries. At the beginning of this tradition in the 17th and early 18th centuries, a centralized Swedish state with great imperial ambitions and an important role in justifying its historical patrimony was formed.</p> <p>The second half of the 19th century was a turning point in monument conservation, resulting in the 1867 decree, which was amended twice, in 1873 and 1886. It reflects the tendencies of professionalization and centralization of monument preservation. The decree complicated the mechanism of approving the demolition of monuments during economic works. The mechanism for granting the right to investigate archaeological heritage was clarified. The overall progressive nature of Swedish regulations by the beginning of the twentieth century cannot but inspire respect, even though the whole legislation on monument conservation was comprised of royal decrees. It was not until 1942 that the Comprehensive Swedish Monument Preservation Act was adopted.</p> O. Prysiazhniuk Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 183 196 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-8 Soviet Ukrainian Germanistics in Personal Dimension: Memoirs of Professor Yuri Mytsyk about Anatolii Zavialov <p>The publication presents the memoirs of professor, Father Yuri Mytsyk about Soviet Ukrainian germanist Anatolii Zavialov. Yuri Mytsyk worked with Anatolii Zavialov at the same department from 1974 till 1989, and from 1975 carried out the duties of his deputy.</p> <p>Zavialov’s academic life and his teaching career in 1960s-2000s was connected to Dnipropetrovsk university. At that time Zavialov actively studied the contemporary history of the German Democratic Republic, he was the author of many articles, including texts in prominent scientific journals, tutorials and published two monographs. He was one of the few Soviet germanists, who had business trips not only to the German Democratic Republic, but also behind the “Iron Curtain”. Zavialov also had the experience of teaching in the universities abroad. As the head of the department of world history, Zavialov made efforts to form a research direction in historical German studies at the university. The majority of dissertations, defended under his scientific supervision, were devoted to German history of the XXth century. Some of his graduate students-germanists continued their career at the department, and it became possible to create a strong center of German studies and turn the department of world history into a center of historical germanistics. To provide the opportunities to publish research in German history, in 1973 the scientific edition “The Questions of German History” was founded at the department of world history of Dnipropetrovsk national university, later it received the status of inter-university scientific edition. Articles here were published by historians-germanists from Soviet Union and the German Democratic Republic. After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany, the study of the history of the German Democratic Republic went bankrupt and Zavialov turned to the history of German diaspora in Ukraine. He focused on political history of the German colonies at the beginning of the XXth century and the questions of the history of colonization in civilizational dimension. The last years of the historian`s life were over shadowed by a sharp deterioration of health and decline in scientific activity.</p> A. Venher Copyright (c) 2022 2022-01-27 2022-01-27 17 197 228 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-17-9