Problems of World History <p><strong>Problems of World History: </strong><strong>Scientific Journal</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN <span style="color: #000000; font-family: Arial; font-size: 13.3333px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">2707-6776</span><br></strong></p> <p>The scientific journal "Problems of World History" is included in the list of professional editions of Ukraine in which the results of the dissertation works for obtaining the scientific degrees of doctor and candidate of sciences in the specialty "historical sciences" can be published.</p> <p><strong>Type:</strong> print edition</p> <p>The publication publishes articles, reviews of scientific works, chronicles of scientific life.</p> <p><strong>Issues: </strong>coverage of fundamental and applied scientific researches of problems of world-historical process and cultural-civilizational development.</p> <p><strong>Founder </strong><strong>and publisher</strong><strong>:</strong> State Institution "Institute of World History of the NAS of Ukraine"</p> <p><strong>Founded in 2015</strong></p> <p><strong>Branch of science:</strong> historical sciences</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> 4 times a year</p> <p><strong>Registered:</strong> <em>State registration certificate </em>КВ 21441-11241Р<em> issued by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine </em>04.08.2015<em>.</em></p> The State Institution «Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine» en-US Problems of World History 2707-6776 Historical Memory in the Process of Formation and Reproduction of Modern National Identity: the French Experience (Part 2) <p>The article is devoted to the study of the role of historical tradition and national memory in the formation of modern types of ethno-national identity and mechanisms of consolidation of citizens at the stage of formation of the French state of the modern type. In this regard, various versions of French history were analyzed by representatives of historical and historiographical schools, which still compete with each other for the status of creators of a generally accepted interpretation of important historical events.</p> <p>It was found that consistently patriotic motivation, which ensures the formation and realization of the innovative potential of the people and social activity of this creative core of the nation, aimed at overcoming any crisis challenges, is formed only on the basis of maximum meaningful synthesis of existing interpretations of French history. In particular, the effectiveness of memory policy is ensured by the fact that symbols, traditions and historical monuments that positively influence the dynamics of national-patriotic motivations and feelings are inevitably (and often, quite consciously) filled with qualitatively new meanings and values.</p> <p>The complete failure of neoliberal and left-wing radical critiques of Holism’s theory and practice has been proved, the conservative elements of which, in particular the appeal to the heroic past, are not at all identical with medieval archaism and almost neo-Nazi political preferences. On the contrary, the typological similarity of Bonapartism and Hollism is due precisely to their ability to effectively oppose reactionary and revolutionary extremism, which is equally destructive to the nation-state.</p> <p>In this regard, the exceptional relevance of the use of historical memory to form their own traditionalist and authoritarian charisma (in their relationship) by the creator and first president of the Fifth Republic Charles de Gaulle in the process of his opposition to anti-national provocations of far-right and far-left.</p> O. Shmorgun Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 7 53 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-1 Armed Conflicts and Unrecognized “republics” as Instruments of Russia’s Influence on Post-Soviet Countries <p>The study is an attempt to generalize the practice of Russia’s implementation of its influence in the post-Soviet space in the context of hybrid aggression as the essence of Russia’s international policy in the region. The main focus of this aggression is directed against those countries of the former Soviet republics that have declared their clear course of European and Euro-Atlantic integration (Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova) and thus stand in the way of Russia’s imperial ambitions.</p> <p>In order to implement its plans, Russia comprehensively uses a wide range of tools and methods of influence of both non-military (“soft power”) and military (“hard power”) nature. Such influence is carried out systematically, for many years and has a complex and comprehensive character in various spheres. Moreover, the methods and ways of influence, as well as their priority, are not stable and differ depending on the country of their application.</p> <p>Among them, not the least place is given by Russia to the manipulation of armed conflicts, which is part of the well-established mechanism of the so called hybrid wars in order to strengthen its geopolitical influence. Supporting or using certain forces in active armed conflicts or threatening to resume the active phase of “frozen” armed conflicts can be a serious tool of foreign policy pressure and give Moscow real military-political advantages in the region.</p> <p>Such conflicts have a decisive impact on the agenda of their localization countries and bring enormous damage to their economic and human potential. The “frozen” conflicts in Georgia and Moldova, as well as the still active conflict in eastern Ukraine, have become clear obstacles to the rapid progress of these countries on the path to European and Euro-Atlantic integration and create a very negative background for their democratic and economic development.</p> <p>As Russia has not yet achieved its goals in the conflict zones in Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova, it is most likely that no significant positive changes in their settlement should be expected in the near future. One of the most effective mechanisms to protect Russia from expansionist encroachments for these countries may be maximum rapprochement with the EU and NATO, and in the long run – accession to these organizations. Such a step will be a kind of victory in the hybrid war with Russia. After all, it is precisely in order to prevent such an option that Russia has created and / or maintains the above-mentioned zones of instability.</p> O. Kordun Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 54 73 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-2 Latvia – NATO: Integration and Cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region <p>The article uses the methodology of geopolitics analysis to identify the basic characteristics of NATO’s current policy towards Latvia and the rest of the Baltic Sea countries. This region with the collapse of the former Soviet Union seemed to be one of the most stable in terms of military security. However, at present, especially after the Revolution of Dignity in Ukraine and the subsequent Russian aggression against our country, there is a noticeable increase in general tensions in the Baltics between NATO states and the Russian Federation and its allies. A study on the example of Latvia, devoted to the development of the military-political situation in the region, gives grounds to conclude that the current increase in the military presence in the Baltics is due to the need to strengthen the protection of the Baltic States from the Russian threat. The latter does not rule out the possibility of further NATO expansion not only to the East but also to the North at the expense of Sweden and Finland. Modern events in the Baltic region can be characterized as part of the next stage of the positional game on the world “chessboard”, where today the winning situation for the Anglo-Saxon strategy is obvious. At the same time, Russia’s geopolitical interests in the Baltic area, including Latvia, have remained virtually unchanged. The western vector of the republic’s development only strengthened Moscow’s attention through deeper and timely monitoring and analysis of the situation in its western neighbors in order to prevent the final and irreversible exit of the Baltic countries from the sphere of Russian influence.</p> <p>The article is intended to help Ukraine to understand and study the unique experience of the transition of a certain post-Soviet country from one political state to another, which is needed not so much for history, but for the purpose of developing modern political and diplomatic methods of cooperation with the leadership of Latvia, as well as the practical application of its experience in its activities on the path of Euro-Atlantic integration. The focus of NATO and, first of all, the United States, on strengthening its presence in the Baltic Sea region is capable of influencing the relations between the Baltic countries that have developed as a result of many years of cooperation. The emphasis on the military component clearly outlines the differences in approaches between NATO member states (Denmark, Poland, Germany, the Baltic countries and Norway), neutral states (Sweden, Finland) and the CSTO allies (Russia and Belarus).</p> O. Kyrychenko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 74 101 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-3 Energy Policy of the Baltic States in the Post-Soviet Period <p>The energy policy of the Baltic States in the post-Soviet period, which aims to reduce energy dependence on Russia with an emphasis on promoting national interests is studied at the article.It is noted that the process of the energy sector’ modernizationof Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia is aimed at strengthening energy security and creating conditions for energy independence, increasing the energy efficiency of economies of these countries. The main directions of the energy policy’ implementation of the Baltic States are outlined.Attention is paid to the fact that modernization programs of the energy sector include the widespread introduction of energy saving technologies, in particular, the use of renewable energy sources.</p> <p>The conditions of functioning of the Baltic States’ energy systems at the time of independence are considered. We are talking about energy, raw materials, infrastructure dependence on a single energy supplier – the Russian Federation.</p> <p>It is noted about the Baltic energy market interconnection plan&nbsp;(BEMIP).The importance of commissioning the LNG terminal in Klaipeda (Lithuania) and the construction of new projects for the transportation of natural gas – GIPL, Balticconnector іs emphasid.Peculiarities of synchronization of electric networks of the Baltic States with the Continental European Network (CEN) are analyzed.A brief description of the energy sector of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the conditions of independence has been made.</p> <p>It is noted about the EU’s position on the development of the Baltic States’energy sector.It is emphasized that the Baltic States have managed to get the support of the EU in their efforts to strengthen energy security.It is concluded that due to the stable position of the Baltic States and the EU in the direction of implementing new projects for energy supply and energy sources, the Baltic States are partially getting rid of energy dependence from Russia.Thanks to EU assistance, the implementation of a common energy policy, the involvement of new partners, the renewal of energy supply routes, and the diversification of energy supply sources, the Baltic States are gradually moving away from energy isolation.</p> I. Mudriievska Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 102 123 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-4 State and Features of Socio-economic Modernization of the Republic of Belarus <p>Today the issues and problems of socio-economic development of the Republic of Belarus, its modernization, the use of tools for implementing theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the national economy development, macroeconomic regulation in the country in the context of performing tasks of a socio-economic nature, institutional mechanisms for ensuring sustainable economic growth of Belarus remain extremely relevant and contain considerable potential for further scientific research.</p> <p>Over the 30 years of its independence, the Republic of Belarus has experienced a decline in the 90s of the twentieth century, caused by the severance of socio-economic ties with other components of the unified state before, as well as a number of crises that had a political basis of external and internal nature. Based on this, the need for modernization of the country became more acute for the legislative and executive authorities. The agenda includes improving the macroeconomic situation in the Republic of Belarus in the context of fulfilling the tasks of socio-economic development. Institutional mechanisms to ensure sustainable economic growth continue to require change and development.</p> <p>A program-based approach to socio-economic modernization is recognized as one of the main elements for solving the set of tasks in the Republic of Belarus. Given the importance and determining role of the manufacturing sector in the formation of the country’s GDP and the role of economic balance, the need for state support for production and infrastructure facilities that can serve as the basis for rapid economic recovery is proved.</p> <p>Based on the conducted research, there is drawn attention to potential risks for the national economy and directions for their neutralization, certain aspects of the country’s external partnership, are considered, as well as demographic development of the state in the context of its impact on the development of Belarus in the future. There are noted positive and negative aspects of the development of the modern Belarusian State.</p> I. Bogdanovich Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 124 142 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-5 Integration Processes in the States of the South Caucasus and the Impact of Military Conflicts on their Course in Post-Soviet time <p>The study examines the key aspects of the integration processes taking place in the states of the South Caucasus after the collapse of the USSR, primarily military conflicts as a result of the unbalanced ethnic policy of the former metropolis. And it is they that largely determine the course and direction of the integration policy of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia. The methodology of the work is in the use of a comparative-historical and problem-research method of research combined with a critical analysis of researches related to the process of the post-Soviet transformation of the South Caucasus. The scientific novelty of the research lies in expanding the scientific understanding of the peculiarities of the existence of the newly independent states of the South Caucasus, determining the degree of influence of military conflicts on the integration prospects of the countries of the region. Analysis of studies, publications in the media, speeches and statements of the leaders of states allows us to determine how the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, the Russian-Georgian confrontations in Abkhazia and South Ossetia are reflected in the foreign policy course and the search for allies to resolve them.</p> <p>It has been established that the course of integration processes in the South Caucasus is still under the influence and serious pressure from the Russian Federation, which actively hinders the integration intentions of the countries of the region. The search for its place in the new realities of the era of independence has become the reason for such a phenomenon as a multi-vector foreign policy. At the same time, it is obvious that as a result of military conflicts, the vector of Georgia's integration is aimed at the state’s entry into NATO as a guarantor of security against Russia's neo-imperial aggression. Armenia, as an aggressor in the Karabakh conflict, chose a generally pro-Russian integration vector, while Azerbaijan focused on an alliance with Turkey.</p> I. Tkachenko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 143 154 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-6 Azerbaijan Republic: Foundations of Successful Transformational Reformations <p>The article deeply analyzes the difficult thirty-year practice of the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan in the context of considering the main components that made it possible to overcome the huge crisis phenomena and challenges that called into question the very existence of the state in the first post-Soviet years, and entering the trajectory of socio-economic development and recovery. The authors argue that it is the strengthening of all state institutions, a balanced consolidating strategy of Azerbaijan studies, skillfully and quickly carried out broad economic reforms, rational approaches to attracting foreign direct investment and creating an appropriate business climate that have been and remain the engines of positive socio-economic transformations.</p> <p>The end of the military confrontation, the departure from the attitudes of extreme nationalism, as well as a number of unpopular measures that were taken under the firm leadership of Heydar Aliyev, were used to overcome separatism and disintegration phenomena, at the same time, human and organizational resources were subordinated to the preservation of Azerbaijan’s national identity and growth public consciousness of its society.</p> <p>The recovery of economic growth in post-Soviet Azerbaijan is inextricably linked with the development of oil resources on the shelf of the Caspian Sea. This was facilitated by a stable domestic and foreign policy, constitutional and legal framework for the development of entrepreneurship, which allows attracting foreign direct investment in the long term.</p> <p>At the present stage, official Baku professes strategic goals for the formation of a socially-oriented, diversified national economy, strengthening its free market relations and the ability to self-development in the context of trends in the world economy. This is facilitated by measures to implement a long-term strategy for the management of oil and gas revenues and a program for the socio-economic development of the regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan.</p> <p>Consequently, the national consolidation, economic growth of Azerbaijan along with the development of the armed forces have become effective factors in the restoration of territorial integrity and the return of uncontrolled territories and their modern restoration.</p> A. Kudryachenko V. Soloshenko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 155 174 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-7 Multi-vector Foreign Policy of Uzbekistan as an Important Means of Solving the Socio-economic Problems of the Country <p>The article elucidates the internal problems of Uzbekistan among which one should mention the problem of poverty, mass unemployment, shortage of arable land and water resources, serious ecological problems. To a high degree these problems have been caused by a rapid growth of population. Uzbekistan tries to solve these problems by means of liberal market reforms and the multi-vector foreign policy developing political, economic and trade relations at the same time with different countries, in particular with China, the USA, the EU, Turkey, South Korea, Russia and other countries-members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). It was shown that volumes of trade of Uzbekistan with the Western countries as well as the level of Western investments remain at least now not high. The conclusion is drawn that for the USA Uzbekistan presents the interest mainly in geopolitical, military and strategic aspects, especially now after the US troops left Afghanistan. The EU is more than the USA interested in developing the trade and economic relations with Uzbekistan. The new agreement between Uzbekistan and the EU on enlarged partnership and cooperation will create more favorable conditions for economic cooperation and trade, growth of European investments into economy of Uzbekistan. Nevertheless it seems that the factor of geographic remoteness of Uzbekistan from Europe will not make it possible for the EU countries to occupy the same place in external economic links of Uzbekistan as the countries-neighbours such as China, Russia and other countries-members of the EAEU. It is shown that China is the most important trade and economic partner of Uzbekistan. China considers Uzbekistan as the important transit country with transport corridors indispensable for transportation first of all of Chinese goods to the countries of Europe and other regions of the world. The Chinese investments into economy of Uzbekistan are constantly growing. The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), in particular Russia and Kazakhstan, is also the most important trade and economic partner of Uzbekistan. Besides, Russia is the biggest labour market for millions of Uzbek migrant workers. Within the EAEU the common labour market was created, migrant workers who are citizens of the countries-members of the EAEU enjoy the social rights of the country of stay and may freely move over territories of the countries-members of the EAEU. This fact is especially important for Uzbekistan which is interested in improving living conditions of its migrant workers. Besides, as the facts show, the economic integration within the EAEU does not prevent the governments of the countries-members of the EAEU from developing intensive political and economic relations with different countries. Taking into account the complex of acute socio-economic, ecological and demographic problems facing Uzbekistan it seems that in the future one cannot completely exclude the possibility of membership of Uzbekistan in the EAEU especially if such a membership does not prevent the Uzbek government from pursuing the multi-vector foreign policy. The parliament of Uzbekistan approved the decision to obtain the status of observer at the EAEU. The EAEU granted this status to Uzbekistan in December 2020.</p> S. Fomin Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 175 195 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-8 Features of the Turkmen Model of Development in the Period 1991-2020 <p>The article comprehensively examines the main components of the Turkmen model of development. In particular, it is noted that today Turkmenistan, compared to other post-Soviet countries, has hardly been affected by modern processes of reforming public life and economic sphere on the basis of democracy, rule of law, building a civilized market and a full-fledged civil society. The author of the article gives a detailed description of modern informal clan structures in Turkmenistan, clarifies their nature and the degree of influence on the functioning of the state and legal system of the country. In particular, it is concluded that the decisive role in the formation of the peculiarities of the Turkmen model of development was played by clan - tribal groups, which have developed here historically. The dominant role among them in public authorities today is occupied by Akhal Tekins.The period of formation of the Turkmen model of development was conditionally divided into two stages. The first stage covers the chronological framework from 1991 to 2006; it is connected with the rule of the first president of the country S. Niyazov. Characteristic features of this period were that proclaimed in the Constitution of Turkmenistan, the construction of a democratic society was replaced by the transition to a “national classless society of a fundamentally new type” at the center of which is the president with unlimited power and cult of personality. The second stage concerns the beginning of 2007 and to the present day. It is connected with the rule of G.&nbsp;Berdymukhamedov. Despite some attempts to democratize the existing systems of government, the activities of the new leader, as well as his predecessor, is characterized by the secrecy and family-clan nature of the ruling elite.A significant place in the article is also given to the study of the peculiarities of economic development of the country, in particular in the field of investment activities. In addition, the main factors influencing the evolution of modern Turkmen foreign policy from a policy of neutrality to isolationism are identified. The author of the article also notes the existence in the modern political system of Turkmenistan of a kind of institutional-legal vacuum, which ultimately leads to the formation of a cult of personality in the country. All this has become a significant obstacle to the process of forming a modern institutional structure in the country.</p> O. Tsapko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 196 212 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-9 Problems of Social and Economic Modernization of Kazakhstan <p>The article analyzes the features of the socio-economic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan after gaining independence in 1991. It is noted that historically the economy of Kazakhstan for many decades was formed as a raw material base for the unified national economic complex of the USSR. Under the conditions of independence, the raw materials industries, primarily the fuel and energy and mining and metallurgical complexes became the basis for the socio-economic development of Kazakhstan, thanks to which the country made an economic breakthrough and deeply integrated into the world economy. Kazakhstan is the leader among the post-Soviet countries in terms of the volume of attracted foreign direct investment, which contributed to the increase in the extraction of natural resources, the construction of new industrial enterprises and infrastructure facilities. The most important trade and investment partners of Kazakhstan are the European Union, the Russian Federation, China and the United States. At the same time, despite the geographical proximity, common social and ethnocultural features, only 4.9% of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade falls on the neighboring countries of Central Asia.</p> <p>The dependence of Kazakhstan on the sale of raw materials, the low investment attractiveness of the manufacturing industries make the country’s economy vulnerable to changes in the situation in the commodity markets, periodically lead to an aggravation of the socio-economic situation. In the structure of Kazakhstani exports, about 70% are products of the extractive industry. A problem in the development of the energy sector is the limited supply routes for energy carriers to world markets. The issue of changing the model of economic growth through the development of high-tech sectors of industry and support for small and medium-sized businesses is extremely relevant. The system of public administration, which is too bureaucratic and cumbersome, also needs to improve efficiency. Also, a reform of social policy is ripe, which should be aimed at increasing social support for citizens. It is necessary to change the strategy for the development of regions, primarily with regard to the creation of jobs and the reduction of regional imbalances.</p> O. Demenko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 16 213 232 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-10