Problems of World History <p><strong>Problems of World History: </strong><strong>Scientific Journal</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN <span style="color: #000000; font-family: Arial; font-size: 13.3333px; font-style: normal; font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align: left; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; background-color: #ffffff; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial; display: inline !important; float: none;">2707-6776</span><br></strong></p> <p>The scientific journal "Problems of World History" is included in the list of professional editions of Ukraine in which the results of the dissertation works for obtaining the scientific degrees of doctor and candidate of sciences in the specialty "historical sciences" can be published.</p> <p><strong>Type:</strong> print edition</p> <p>The publication publishes articles, reviews of scientific works, chronicles of scientific life.</p> <p><strong>Issues: </strong>coverage of fundamental and applied scientific researches of problems of world-historical process and cultural-civilizational development.</p> <p><strong>Founder </strong><strong>and publisher</strong><strong>:</strong> State Institution "Institute of World History of the NAS of Ukraine"</p> <p><strong>Founded in 2015</strong></p> <p><strong>Branch of science:</strong> historical sciences</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> 4 times a year</p> <p><strong>Registered:</strong> <em>State registration certificate </em>КВ 21441-11241Р<em> issued by the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine </em>04.08.2015<em>.</em></p> The State Institution «Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine» en-US Problems of World History 2707-6776 Medieval Shields of Europe and Rus’ (Construction, Military Symbolic Significance, Development) <p>The article considers the problem of the development of shields, the main element of medieval protective equipment, and an important military and heraldic symbol in Ukrainian medieval state of Rus’ and in Europe in general. The state of the research and the source base are outlined. The main trends in the development of the design and symbolic significance of shields in Europe during the Middle Ages are outlined. At the same time, emphasis was placed on sources concerning Rus’ lands and adjacent territories. The author draws attention to the need to compare archaeological, written and iconographic sources in one study. The study focuses on the most representative sources, especially those that can be to apply on material from the Rus’ lands. It is emphasized that the shield as a basic element of protective equipment during the Middle Ages, іn Rus’ lands largely developed in line with European trends. Which in turn makes it impossible to isolate local features about to beginning of the ХІІІ century. At the turn of the XII–XIII centuries in some regions of Eastern Europe, namely the Rus’-Baltic-Polish border, a relatively new type of shield is being formed, the so-called “protopaveza”. This in turn had a direct impact on the armaments of Rus’ and the Teutonic Order in the ХІІІ–ХІV centuries. The author analyzes the main interactions and borrowings of types of shields between different regions of Eastern Europe during the Middle Ages. It is noted that in the Ukrainian medieval state of Rus’, which was at the intersection of Eastern and Western military traditions, shields of both European types and the eastern “kalkan” could be used. However, given the available sources, it is safe to say that the European trend of development of this protective equipment had an advantage. The author came to the conclusion that the shields used in Rus’ and Europe in the X–XII&nbsp;centuries generally belonged to the same types. In particular, it is round, almond-shaped and triangular shields. The issue of shields of the XIII–XV centuries remains more complicated. During this period can be observed as the influence of Western Europe on Rus’, for example, the spread of the knight's “tarch”. And trends that began in Eastern Europe, namely the spread of pavises in the XIV–XV centuries.</p> M. Kozak Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 12 40 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-1 Activities of Military Training Missions of European Countries and the United States in the Armies of States, Transforming the Armed forces (the last third of the XIXth – the first third of the XXth Centuries): Problems and Prospects of Research <p>The study of the work of military professionals sent as part of missions from the advanced European states and the United States to the reformed armies of the countries of Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America in the last third of the 19th – the first third of the 20th centuries has repeatedly been the focus of research by professional historians.</p> <p>The study of the training activities of military missions at the time under study allows us to see general and particular problems of the history of military modernization. A significant time span and various regions of the world in which mission officers served, allow for the scientific prospects and problems of studying military training activities using a comparative method. Comparison of training activities of missions from different countries contributes to the analysis of national military schools. This factor, along with other causes, has a decisive importance for the work of military instructors. By comparison, the regional specifics of the professional work of members of military missions are more clearly visible.</p> <p>The comparative methodology allows us to trace specifically the evolution of training activities of official military missions in historical retrospect through a set off historical examples. The extensive time span enables us to see what and why in the studies of a number of historians remained outside the scope of analysis, and which are as a reconsidered by the authors as mandatory for study.</p> <p>The study reveals the most successful works of researchers on the issues understudy. One of the aims of the article is to determine the most difficult areas for study the work of military professionals from missions in foreign armies and the ways of their disclosure.</p> <p>The study is relevant due to the constant interest of professional historians in the topic of military modernization and the use of military missions for faster reforms of the armed forces during difficult periods of development in some countries.</p> S. Falko Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 41 64 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-2 Australian Foreign Policy during the World War II <p>The article is related to the establishment of Australian foreign policy tradition and becoming of Australia as a subject of international relations. The significant role of the dominions during First World War Great and their help for Great Britain victory, intensified their struggle for independence. As the result of long-term efforts, dominions reached the proclamation of the Balfour Declaration in 1926 by London, which was later confirmed by the Statute of Westminster (1931), which established the authority for dominions for an independent foreign policy. The development of Australian foreign policy before and during World War II was analyzed. The evolution of the relations of the Australia and Great Britain in the context of the events of the World War II is traced, in particular the peculiarities of the allied relations of the two countries. There is shown the regional dimension of the World War II within the Asia-Pacific region, in the context of Australia and the United States actions against Japanese aggression. There are analyzed the peculiarities of external threats effect on the transformation of the Australian foreign policy strategy, in particular in the national security sphere. The main threat for Australia in that period become Japanise aggressive and expansionist policy in the Asia-Pacific region. A lot of Australian soldiers and military equipment were sent to Great Britain to support traditional allie. But in actual strategic situation in Europe there were great doubts that British troops and the navy would be able to effectively help&nbsp; Australians in case of an attack by Japan. Politics of national security and defense of Australia in the context of its participation in World War II is considered. In the conditions of real threat of Japanese invasion, as well as the lack of sure to receive necessary support from Great Britain, the Australian government start to find a military alliance with the USA. There were identified the key implications of World War II for Australian socio-economic system.</p> I. Vietrynskyi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 65 88 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-3 The Labor use of German Immigrants from the USSR in the Economy of the Third Reich at the Final Stage of World War II <p><strong>The study aims</strong> to reveal the mechanism and features of attracting German immigrants from the USSR to labor service in Nazi Germany at the final stage of World War II. <strong>The research methodology</strong> is based on the principles of historicism and objectivity and a set of special and general scientific methods. <strong>Scientific novelty.</strong> Based on the involvement of an extensive array of archival documents, for the first time in historiography, an attempt was made to comprehensively illuminate the problem of using the labor of German immigrants from the USSR in the economy of the Third Reich. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> German refugees were taken out by the decision of the Nazi authorities in 1943-1944. from the occupied regions of the USSR to the homeland of their ancestors, in the conditions of declared total war, they naturally became part of the Third Reich's labor resources. Most of them were concentrated in the agricultural and industrial sectors of the economy. At the same time, the bulk immigrants' movement to the territory of Warthegau was caused not by the objective needs of the region for additional labor but by the geopolitical plans of the Nazi leadership. Attempts by some areas of Germany to make up for the acute shortage of human resources in agriculture at the expense of the refugees who arrived were unsuccessful. Their aspirations were shattered by the inert position of Himmler and his inner circle. They did not want to go beyond the concept of using German settlers and the bureaucratic mechanisms associated with it. Only officials who defended the interests of the German military-industrial complex were able to achieve certain concessions. The majority of Soviet Germans in the system of social and labor relations in Nazi Germany were reduced mainly to the level of foreign labor, which is especially clearly evidenced by their relationship with employers and living conditions.</p> V. Martynenko Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 89 114 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-4 Deported Lemkos in the Nets of Soviet Post-war Propaganda <p>The article reveals the complex pages of the notoriously planned Soviet propaganda among the deportees in the post-war period. It shows its detrimental effect on the preservation of the ethnic foundations of the Lemko group.</p> <p>Considering that Lemkivshchyna today had lost its integrity as a historical and ethnographic region, and the Lemkos were settled around the world - these only actualize the task to a comprehensive and thorough analysis of the socio-political and national-cultural processes in the region and Lemkos in their context in the new era; to ascertain the role of Lemkivshchyna and Lemkos in the ethnopolitics of the states and, accordingly, their contribution to the development of various Ukrainian public, political, cultural and state organizations, institutions and entities, and generally assess their role and significance in the history of Ukraine of XX - early XXI century.</p> <p>It is claimed that the whole catastrophe of modern times for the Lemkos was their deportation from their native ethnic areas, first to the USSR in 1944 - 1946, where they found themselves among their people, but not on their land, and later - in 1947 those who remained were settled in Poland. New powerful political-administrative and ideological factors against the local population during the Soviet-Polish negotiations were used. The most brutal action against local Ukrainians was Operation Vistula in April-July 1947, which unjustifiably had the task of erasing traces of their national image in peacetime.</p> <p>The difficult stages of life in the Lemko region in the conditions of deportation actions of the 1940s, carried out as a result of the Soviet-Polish conspiracy of 1944 are traced, and pointed out their territorial, social, cultural and mental consequences.А reflection of Russian and later Soviet propaganda, at first, in the Lemkos region, and later among the deported Lemkos, is carried out.</p> <p>The deportation of the local population has led to irreversible territorial, demographic, cultural and mental losses. The analysis of the sources allows us to suggest that the policies of both Poland and the USSR aimed at eradicating Lemko natives from their ethnic areas. And this was done by various methods, starting with propaganda, in the initial stages, to using force at later stages.</p> <p>Having been deported to the Ukrainian SSR from their ethnic territories in Poland, autochthonous Lemkos fell into the nets of total Soviet propaganda. Soviet ideologues tried to involve the most diverse methods, which even in the interwar period manifested in different ways (from public influences, populist calls for a better future, active agitation for leaving the USSR), were well supported materially. At the beginning of the Second World War, we observed a transition to more pragmatic measures through the organization of a special centre and the activities of special agitator instructors. In the post-war period, meetings and conversations with the population took place in almost every village, in which Soviet agitators contrasted poverty in Lemkivshchyna with prosperous life in the USSR. Such oral propaganda, moreover, in all regions of the Ukrainian SSR where the Lemkos arrived, the Bolsheviks reinforced with various slogans, brochures and appeals.</p> I. Lyubchyk Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 115 127 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-5 Soviet Aggression in Afghanistan (1979–1989) and American – Pakistan Relanions <p>The impact of the Soviet aggression in Afghanistan in 1979–1989 on US–Pakistan relations on the basis of predominantly American-Pakistani documents and memoirs has been examined in the article. Soviet intervention in Afghanistan led to the deterioration of Soviet-American relations, the curtailment of “détente” and the escalation of the Cold War. One manifestation of this was the United States’ full support for the Afghan opposition. The USA needed Pakistan as allies in this policy but it was sandwiched between Soviet-occupied Afghanistan and unfriendly India, so it needed reliable allies. In addition, the Afghan opposition parties’ headquarters, Mujahedeen training camps were located in Pakistan with almost 3 million settled refugees. The USA and Pakistan were mutually interested in close cooperation.</p> <p>The conditionality of changing the format of US-Pakistani relations by the civil war in Afghanistan and the involvement of the USSR on the side of the ruling People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan have been proved. The relations between the USA and Pakistan in the 1980s developed in two directions: official and covert but under the Afghan crisis influence the United States gave in to its principles. Despite the dictatorial regime, violation of the conditions of nuclear non-proliferation the USA has significantly expanded its military-technical and economic assistance to Pakistan. This significantly strengthened the country's defense capabilities and position of M.&nbsp;Ziyaul-Haq’s regime and Pakistan has become in general one of the main allies of the USA in their support of the Afghan crisis opposition. The secret cooperation between the CIA and the Pakistani Interagency Intelligence in financing and supplying military property to the Afghan Mujahedeen, providing them with intelligence, assisting in the production and dissemination of propaganda materials was important. This had a marked effect on the Afghan war outbreak, greatly strengthened the Mujahedeen’s ability to resist Soviet troops, and significantly increased the disastrous consequences of the Afghan adventure for the USSR. After the Soviet troops’ withdrawal from Afghanistan, Pakistan lost strategic importance to the USA, and most programs of US-Pakistani cooperation were curtailed.</p> O. Kovalkov Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 128 143 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-6 Results of Parliamentary Elections in Hungary on April 3, 2022 and Prospects of Ukrainian-Hungarian Relations (Part 1) <p>The article is dedicated to the elections to the State Assembly of Hungary on April 3, 2022, which ended with the victory and acquisition of a constitutional majority by the now ruling coalition of Fidesz-Hungarian Civil Union and the Christian Democratic People’s Party (KDNP) - (Fidesz–KDNP).</p> <p>It analyzes its electoral platform “War or Peace”, the center of which was the attitude to the Russian-Ukrainian war. It is indicated that this war divided the political forces of Hungary into two camps – supporters of neutrality (peace) or supporters of Ukraine (war). The ruling coalition advocated neutrality, non-intervention in the war, which guaranteed the preservation of peace and tranquility for the citizens of Hungary. All the opposition forces showed support for Ukraine against Russia. The authorities accused the latter of the fact that their pro-Ukrainian and anti-Putin activities posed a danger and threatened the spread of the war to the territory of Hungary. It is emphasized that thanks to this position, Fidesz–KDNP won a convincing victory in Hungary as a whole and especially among the Hungarian communities abroad, while the six-party opposition bloc, although it won convincingly in 17 of Budapest’s 18 districts, suffered a significant defeat in the country as a whole.</p> <p>The main reasons for the unexpected victory of the ruling coalition Fidesz - HDNP in these elections are highlighted. Among them: the coalition flexibly combined centrist and center-right values, synthesized them and rose above narrow party interests, turning into a broad popular front of the Hungarian nation. It is also noted that during the 12-year remaining stay in power in the country, transformations were completed, namely, a new Basic Law (constitution) was adopted, relevant legislation was formed, and a national democratic model of political and economic power was introduced according both to the state and EU standards that complies with state and EU standards. The internal policy was aimed at the development of traditional branches of the economy and the formation of modern forms of management. Relatively high economic development of the country was ensured thanks to by the effective use of foreign investments, international markets, which are far from being limited to EU countries. Hungary develops close cooperation with countries of all regions, if its national interests are ensured. Great attention is paid to the support and protection of Hungarian communities living in countries neighboring Hungary (Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine). At the legislative level, the status of Hungarians abroad is almost equal to that of Hungarians in the country itself. The policy of national unity, the recognition of Hungarians, regardless of their residency country of residence, as members of a united single Hungarian nation, gained general approval. The concentration of domestic and foreign policy on the priority of Hungarian interests helped Fidesz to turn into an authoritative and reliable political force of the country, which, using civilized methods, fights for the future of Hungary, the comprehensive development of its people, the preservation of the identity of Hungarian communities abroad, the prevention of assimilation, mass emigration and the restriction of their rights along national lines. In addition, the ruling coalition managed to form a reliable financial, personnel, and media potential, to significantly expand the electoral field of its activities, which no opposition political force is able to compete with, especially during the elections to the State Assembly.</p> <p>The qualitative composition of the new parliament was analyzed. The progress of the election of the new President of Hungary on March 9, the speaker of the newly elected parliament, his deputies and heads of parliamentary factions on May 2, and finally the Prime Minister of Hungary on May 16 and the approval of the country’s new government headed by Viktor Orbán on May 24, is highlighted.</p> <p>Great attention is paid to the formation of Hungarian-Ukrainian relations. The analysis of political processes during the election campaign and in the first months after the end of the elections, in particular the attitude of Budapest to the aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, to the formation of Hungarian-Ukrainian relations, allowed us to draw conclusions that the priorities of the international activities of the ruling coalition of Hungary will remain unchanged: serving the interests of the Hungarian nation on in all territories of its residence, in particular support, protection and assistance to Hungarian national communities in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Ukraine. The results of the parliamentary elections in Hungary on April 3, 2022 confirmed that these principles are unchanged and continue to be binding in the activities of the Hungarian government institutions.</p> <p>It is emphasized that the level of development of Hungary's bilateral relations with neighboring states will depend on ensuring the Hungarian foreign communities interests how the interests of the Hungarian foreign communities will be ensured (granting dual citizenship, autonomy status for the community, creating conditions for cultural and educational development based on in the national language and traditions). Hungarian-Ukrainian relations will be in the same condition state. Hungary supports the territorial integrity of Ukraine, its European choice, condemns Russian aggression, supports the EU’s sanctions policy against the Russian Federation, and provided shelter for 800,000 refugees from Ukraine. More than 100,000 people from Ukraine stay are in Hungary illegally. Since July 19, Hungary has allowed the transit of weapons from other countries through its territory to Ukraine. Yet But it continues to maintain neutrality in the Russian-Ukrainian war, supports EU energy sanctions against the Russian Federation in such a way that it does not harm its economic interests. At the same time, it does not agree to the application of certain legal provisions on education the procedure for using the Ukrainian language as the official language on the territory of Ukraine, that came into force in 2017 and 2019 to the Hungarian community of Transcarpathia of a number of provisions of the laws on education and the procedure for using the Ukrainian language as the official language on the territory of Ukraine, which came into force in 2017 and 2019.</p> <p>It is emphasized that the settlement of cultural and educational issues of the Hungarian community of Transcarpathia should become a priority task for both countries.</p> M. Derzhaliuk Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 144 186 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-7 The Role of Women-Journalists and Writers in the Development of Democracy and Culture in Australia (the end of the XIXth century – 70s of the XXth century) <p>The emancipation of Australian women in particular journalists and writers, who dedicated their lives to the development of culture of the fifth continent has been detected in this article. The goal of the article is to analyse the arrival of women – journalists, editors, publishers - in the print media and to determine their role in the formation and development of democracy and culture of the young state.</p> <p>As a result of the interdisciplinary research (combination of history, sociology, philology, culturology) new data on the role of women were obtained in the formation of democracy in Australia. This gives reason to affirm that this is the first study of this problem in Ukraine.</p> <p>New names of such outstanding Australian men – journalists, editors, publishers, writers as E.S.&nbsp;Hall, S.&nbsp;Bennet, H.&nbsp;Parks, G.&nbsp;Mott, C.&nbsp;Feilberg, W.&nbsp;Winn and women – L.&nbsp;Lawson, F.&nbsp;Baverstock, N.&nbsp;Palmer were introduced into scientific circulation. Significantly expanded and supplemented historical and cultural information about such outstanding women writers and journalists as M.&nbsp;Gilmore, E.F.&nbsp;Richardson, M.&nbsp;Franklin, K.S.&nbsp;Prichard, C.&nbsp;Stead, C.&nbsp;McCullough. Their life is investigated in the context of socio-historical development of Australia and world events that were reflected in their work. Great is their contribution to the antifascist struggle, to the defence of freedom and democratic values in Australia.</p> <p>The artistic value of the work of each of them is determined. The humanistic and realistic approach in creating their characters is clarified. It reflects the historical and socio-cultural development of Australia since the mid-XIX century to the 70-s of the XX century. It is proved that the history of periodicals and the development of literature on the fifth continent is the story of extraordinary talented women, in whose destinies the history of the development of the fourth power and the literature of Australia is reflected. The stages of The Bulletin magazine’s existence, the reasons for its closure and its influence on formation of Australian national literature are analysed.</p> <p>The practical value of the work lies in the fact that it brings new data to academic courses such as “The History of Australia”, “The Print Media of Australia”, “The Literature of Australia”.</p> <p>It is proved than women writers and journalists of Australia enriched Australian literature with bright original works and also made a significant contribution to its culture and democracy.</p> O. Zernetska Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 187 211 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-8 The Life path of the Italian Doctor, Anatomist, Surgeon and Theoretician of Medicine Guido Guidi <p>The name of Guido Guidi appears in the histories of medicine as that of the author of a beautifully illustrated book on surgery and as one of the innumerable anatomical eponyms. Guido Guidi practiced medicine and surgery in his native city Florence and made such a reputation that he was in 1542 invited by Francis&nbsp;I, King of France, to come to Paris. The King appointed him one of his personal physicians and permitted him to give public lectures in medicine and surgery at the newly founded College de France. Guidi was about to publish a surgical treatise, based on a Greek manuscript of the tenth century preserved in the Laurenzian Library at Florence. Among the notable features of this manuscript were thirty full-sized plates illustrating the commentary of Apollonius of Kitium on the Hippocratic treatise on dislocations and other pictures accompanying a copy of Galen's treatise on bandaging. These illustrations represented the genuine Hippocratic traditions of surgical practice as transmitted through later Greek channels to Byzantium. In Paris, Guidi lived with Benvenuto Cellini, who became his friend and who has many laudatory references to him in his autobiography. In 1544 Guidi's book on surgery appeared. It is a splendid folio volume, beautifully printed and containing remarkable woodcut copies, or rather adaptations, of the original tenth-century drawings. Guidi's Chirurgia was the best illustrated work on surgery that had appeared up to its date. It comprises translations of six works by Hippocrates, one by Galen and two by Oribasius, together with commentaries by Galen and by Guidi himself. The treatment of all varieties of fractures and dislocations is described in great detail and is very clearly illustrated. Some three years after the publication of his Chirurgia Guidi was recalled to Italy to become chief personal physician to Cosimo de Medici. He practiced and taught medicine at Pisa, took Holy Orders, received high' ecclesiastical preferment, and was in 1557 raised to the nobility. He died at the height of his renown on 26 May 1569 and was buried in the tomb of his ancestors in Florence. For some years before his death he had been occupied in writing a comprehensive work on medicine. This great work was completed and published by his nephew in three huge volumes between 1596 and 1611. This study is based on original research and it corrects many errors that have been perpetuated in standard reference books.</p> Y. Dobrolyubska Copyright (c) 2022 2022-11-08 2022-11-08 18 212 223 10.46869/2707-6776-2022-18-9