Central Asian and Middle Eastern policy towards Tajikistan

Main Article Content

Abstract

The article analyzes the main policy directions towards Tajikistan, neighboring countries of Central Asia and culturally related to the Tajiks of the Middle East towards Tajikistan. The civil war in Tajikistan between supporters of the country’s secular and religious paths of development (1992-1997) caused mixed attitudes and policies on the part of various state, political and religious circles in Afghanistan. However, after it became clear that the struggle between secular and Islamist forces in Tajikistan could destroy the country as such, the culturally and linguistically close to the Tajiks political elite of Afghanistan (B. Rabbani and A. Masood) and Iran (A. Rafsanjani) made significant efforts to end the civil war in Tajikistan as mediators and expressed interest in the sustainable development of Tajikistan. In the 2000s, Iran abandoned attempts to influence Tajik policy in order to promote the establishment of a religious state in Tajikistan, turning to cooperation with the secular Tajik authorities in the economic sphere.


Important issues complicating relations between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are the construction by Tajiks of large hydropower plants on mountain rivers, which Uzbekistan considers a threat to national security, and unresolved border disputes, which are a source of constant aggravation in Kyrgyz-Tajik. In general, Tajikistan has complex problems of various kinds with most of its neighbors (with Afghanistan - drug trafficking and Islamic influences, with Uzbekistan - water energy, with Kyrgyzstan - border), which prevent bilateral relations to reach a new level of quality.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 46 | PDF Downloads: 20 |

Article Details

How to Cite
Bulvinskyi, A. (2021) “Central Asian and Middle Eastern policy towards Tajikistan”, Problems of World History, (14), pp. 119-130. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-4.

Section
Articles
Author Biography

A. Bulvinskyi

Bulvinskiy Andriy – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of History of New Independent States of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.

References

Bulvinskyi, A.H. (2020). Tadzhykystan v heopolitychniy strukturi tsentral’noaziys’koho rehionu: istorychnyy aspekt [Tajikistan in geopolitical structure of the Central Asian region: a historical aspect] Istorychni peredumovy stanovlennya zovnishn’opolitychnoyi oriyentatsiyi krayin postradyans’koho prostoru [Historical preconditions for the formation of the foreign policy orientation of the post-Soviet space]: zbirnyk naukovykh prats’ / za zah. red. A.H. Bulvinskoho. K.: DU “Instytut vsesvitn’oyi istoriyi NAN Ukrayiny”, рр. 5-22. [In Ukrainian].

Iskandarov, K. (2008). Tadžiksko-afganskie otnošeniâ i perspektivy ih razvitiâ [Tajik-Afghan relations and prospects for their development] Central’naâ Aziâ i Kavkaz [Central Asia and Caucasus], 1, pp.145-156. [In Russian].

Ravšanzod, M. (2019). Graždanskoe protivostoânie i mirotvorčeskij process v Respublike Tadžikistan v 90-e gody XX v. [Civil confrontation and peacekeeping process in the Republic of Tajikistan in the 90s of the twentieth century]: Dis… kand. ist. nauk. Dušanbe. [In Russian].

Iskandarov, K. Vliânie afganskogo krizisa na situaciû v Tadžikistane [Impact of the Afghan crisis on the situation in Tajikistan]. [Online]. Available from: https://www.ca-c.org/journal/14-1998/st_07_iskanderov.shtml [In Russian].

Burhanuddin Rabbani (èks-prezident Afganistana): “Rahmonov - dostojnyj paren’…” (interv’û) [Burhanuddin Rabbani (ex-president of Afghanistan): “Rakhmonov is a worthy guy ...” (interview)]. 2006. [Online]. Available from: https://centrasia.org/newsA.php?st=1151720280 [In Russian].

Mohammadsadeg, M. (2012). Kul’turnye svâzi Respubliki Tadžikistan s Islamskoj Respublikoj Iran (1991-2011 gg.) [Cultural ties of the Republic of Tajikistan with the Islamic Republic of Iran (1991-2011)]: Avtoref. dis. kand. ist. nauk. Dušanbe. [In Russian].

Ne”matov, I. (2016). Islamskij faktor vo vzaimootnošeniâh Respubliki Tadžikistan i Islamskoj Respubliki Iran (konec XX načalo XXI vv.) [The Islamic factor in the relationship between the Republic of Tajikistan and the Islamic Republic of Iran (late XX - early XXI centuries)]: Avtoref. dis. kand. ist. nauk. Dušanbe. [In Russian].

Abdrahmanov, A. (2007). Tadžikistan: aktual’nye tendencii v èkonomike, vnutrennej i vnešnej politike [Tajikistan: current trends in the economy, domestic and foreign policy] Central’naâ Aziâ i Kavkaz [Central Asia and Caucasus], 6, pp. 25-41. [In Russian].

Plata za proezd po “doroge smerti” [Toll on the “road of death”]. 28.10.2019. [Online]. Available from: https://fergana.news/articles/112022/; Iran i Tadžikistan dogovorilis’ vložit’ $8 mln v dostrojku “tonnelâ užasa” [Iran and Tajikistan agreed to invest $ 8 million in completion of the "tunnel of horror"]. 2019. [Online]. Available from: https://fergana.media/news/108598/ [In Russian].

Dodihudoev, H. (2008). Tadžikistan – Iran: dostiženiâ i perspektivy sotrudničestva [Tajikistan – Iran: Achievements and Prospects for Cooperation] Central’naâ Aziâ i Kavkaz [Central Asia and Caucasus], 2. pp.152-161. [In Russian].

Alimov, B.H. (2013) Geopolitičeskie realii Tadžikistana v Central’noj Azii i persoâzyčnyj al’âns regiona [Geopolitical realities of Tajikistan in Central Asia and the Persian-speaking alliance of the region] Vestnik Tadžikskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta prava, biznesa i politiki. Seriâ gumanitarnyh nauk [Bulletin of the Tajik State University of Law, Business and Politics. Humanities Series], 3 (55), pp. 204-208. [In Russian].

Tošmuhammadov, M. (2004). Graždanskaâ vojna v Tadžikistane i postkonfliktnoe vosstanovlenie [Civil war in Tajikistan and post-conflict reconstruction]. Sapporo. [Online]. Available from: https://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/pdf_seminar/040607tasmuhammadov.pdf [In Russian].

Soglašenie o Kollektivnyh mirotvorčeskih silah i sovmestnyh merah po ih material’no-tehničeskomu obespečeniû (Moskva, 24 sentâbrâ 1993 goda). [Agreement on the Collective Peacekeeping Forces and joint measures for their material and technical support (Moscow, September 24, 1993)] [Online]. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/997_ 893#Text [In Russian].

O Kollektivnyh mirotvorčeskih silah v Respublike Tadžikistan. Rešenie Soveta glav gosudarstv Sodružestva Nezavisimyh Gosudarstv ot 21.06.2000 g. [About the Collective Peacekeeping Forces in the Republic of Tajikistan. Decision of the Council of Heads of State of the Commonwealth of Independent States of June 21, 2000] [Online]. Available from: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/H000000193_ [In Russian].

Uzbekistan i Tadžikistan: konec holodnoj vojne i starye tajny [Uzbekistan and Tajikistan: the end of the Cold War and old secrets]. 2018. [Online]. Available from: https://regnum.ru/news/polit/2387873.html [In Russian].

Tadžikistan i Uzbekistan vozobnovât aviasoobŝenie [Tajikistan and Uzbekistan will resume flights]. 2016. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ato.ru/content/tadzhikistan-i-uzbekistan-vozobnovyat-aviasoobshchenie [In Russian].

Dan start stroitel’stvu železnoj dorogi Turkmenistan-Afganistan-Tadžikistan [The construction of the Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Tajikistan railway has been started]. 2013. [Online]. Available from: http://www.turkmenistan.ru/ru/articles/38671.html [In Russian].

Razminirovanie tadžiksko-uzbekskoj granicy načnetsâ uže v mae [Demining of the Tajik-Uzbek border will begin in May]. 2018. [Online]. Available from: https://uz.sputniknews.ru/20180417/uzbekistan-tadjikistan-granica-razminirovanie-7980299.html [In Russian].

Tadžikistan: alûminievyj zavod ždet pomoŝ’ pravitel’stva [Tajikistan: aluminum plant awaits government assistance]. 2013. [Online]. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/russian/ international/2013/12/131224_tajik_aluminum [In Russian].

Abdullo, R. (2015). Tadžikistan – Kitaj: četvert’ veka prâmyh otnošenij [Tajikistan – China: a quarter of a century of direct relations] Central’naâ Aziâ i Kavkaz [Central Asia and Caucasus], 18, 3-4, pp. 105-120. [In Russian].

Farmonova, D.Zh. (2012). Polytycheskyoe, ekonomycheskye y kul’turnoe sotrudnychestvo Respublyky Tadzhykystan s hosudarstvamy Tsentral’noy Azyy v peryod nezavysymosty (1992-2007 gg.) [Political, economic and cultural cooperation of the Republic of Tajikistan with the Central Asian states during the period of independence (1992-2007)]: Avtoref… dyss. kand. yst. nauk. – Khudzhand. [In Russian].

Uzbekystan napravyl pys’mo v OON po povodu ukhudshenyya ekolohycheskoy sytuatsyy v severnykh rayonakh Surkhandar’ynskoy oblasty [Uzbekistan sent a letter to the UN on the deterioration of the environmental situation in the northern regions of the Surkhandarya region]. 2013. [Online]. Available from: https://news.un.org/ru/story/2013/06/1223591#.UfvQCNIyKf0 [In Russian].

Kakimi uchastkamy namereny obmenyat’sya Kyrhyzstan y Tadzhykystan? [What areas do Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan intend to exchange?]. 2020. [Online]. Available from: https://rus.ozodi.org/a/tajik-kyrgyz-possible-exchange-/30392726.html [In Russian].

Problema ne tol’ko v kartakh. Kto vynovat v rezkom obostrenyy sytuatsyy na kyrhyzsko-tadzhykskoy hranytse? [The problem is not only with the cards. Who is to blame for the sharp aggravation of the situation on the Kyrgyz-Tajik border?]. 2021. [Online]. Available from: https://fergana.news/articles/122061/ [In Russian].

V Kyrhyzstane rasskazaly, chto proyskhodyt na hranytse s Tadzhykystanom [In Kyrgyzstan told what is happening on the border with Tajikistan]. 2021. [Online]. Available from: https://glavred.info/world/v-kyrgyzstane-rasskazali-chto-proishodit-na-granice-s-tadzhikistanom-10268823.html [In Russian].