Lend-lease Program through the Prism of Official and Ego Sources

Main Article Content


Discussions around various aspects of World War II in the world’s scientific space and memory field have continued throughout the postwar decades. Initially, they were determined by polar and antagonistic ideological paradigms, and after the end of the Cold War – the discovery and introduction into scientific circulation of previously classified sources, testing of avant-garde methods of scientific knowledge, the development of interpretive tools.

In the late 1930s, the Soviet Union found itself virtually isolated, alone with the Axis bloc and their allies. It was difficult for the Soviet leadership to overcome the existing threats on its own, especially after the German attack. Only the realization by the Western Allies that Berlin’s aggressive course had become a global challenge made it possible to find a constructive way to join forces in the fight against a common enemy. One of the channels of cooperation between the states of the Anti-Hitler Coalition was the organization of supplies to the USSR of military equipment, ammunition, food, and materials necessary for the facilities of the Soviet military-industrial complex within the framework of the land lease program.

Until recently, the problem of land lease was more in ideological discourse than in purely scientific. The currently available source base allows for an unbiased analysis of this phenomenon and elucidation of the place and role of foreign revenues to the USSR in strengthening its defense capabilities during the war against Germany and its allies. However, to this day, the researchers look out of focus, because of the perception of this phenomenon by veterans who fought on foreign military equipment, ate food from overseas. The authors of the article sees their task as combining these two dimensions of the lend-lease and finding out its impact not only on the scale of the large-scale armed confrontation, but also on the moral and psychological condition of the Red Army, for whom the war was an extremely difficult test.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 39 | PDF Downloads: 29 |

Article Details

How to Cite
Lysenko, O., Fil, O. and Khoynatska, L. (2021) “Lend-lease Program through the Prism of Official and Ego Sources”, Problems of World History, (15), pp. 53-73. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-2.

Author Biographies

O. Lysenko

Lysenko Oleksandr – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of History of Ukraine during the Second World War of Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

O. Fil

Fil Oleksandr – Ph.D. in History, Deputy Director, National Military History Museum of Ukraine.

L. Khoynatska

Khoynatska Lyudmyla – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Professor of Special Department No. 2, Іnstitute of Department of State Guard of Ukraine of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.


Bailey, Т.A. (1950). America Faces Russia: Russian-American Relations from Early Times to Our Days. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. [In English].

Jones, R.H. (1969). Roads to Russia: United States lendlease to the Soviet Union. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. [In English].

Laurat, L. (1955). Bilan de vingtcinq ans de plans quinquennaux, 1929-1955. S.I. [In French].

Ruffmann, K.-H. (1977). Sowietrussland 1917-1977. Muenchen. [In English].

Herring, G.С. (1973). Aid to Russia. 1941–1946: Strategy, Diplomacy, the Origins of the Cold War. N. Y.; L. [In English].

Herring, G.C. (1969). Lend-Lease to Russia and the Origins of the Cold War, 1944-1945. The of American History, 1, (56). рр. 113-114. [In English].

Nove, A. (1972). An Economic History of the U.S.S.R. Great Britain: Penguin books. [In English].

Smith, B.F. (1986). The war’s long shadow: The Second World War and Its Aftermath China, Russia, Britain, America. N. Y. [In English].

Harrison, M. (1995). The Soviet Economy and Relations with the United States and Britain, 1941-45. In: Lane, A. & Temperley, Н. (eds.). The Rise and the Fall of the Grand Alliance, 1941–45. (Pр. 69-89). London. [In English].

Geyer, D. (Hrsg.) (1972). Sowjetunion. Außenpolitik 1917–1955, Osteuropa-Handbuch. Köln, Wien. рр. 300-319. [In German].

Loth, W. (1985). Die Teilung der Welt: Geschichte des Kalten Krieges 1941-1955. Muenchen. [In German].

Bonwetsch, В., Haumann, H. & Loewe, H.-D., u. a. (1992). Lend-Lease als Basis der Allianz. In: Handbuch der Geschichte Russlands: von den autokratischen Reformen zum Sowjetstaat, 1856–1945. (В. 3, II). [In German]. [In German].

Michel, A. (1969). La seconde guerre mondiale. P. [In French].

Shtoler, M.A. (1994). Amerikanskoe voennoe planirovanie i SSSR. 1943-1944 gg. [American military planning and the USSR. 1943-1944]. Novaya i novejshaya istoriya [New and recent history], 6, рр. 54-69. [In Russian].

Khazard, D.N. (1990). ....Na zashhitu amerikanskix interesov [... To defend American interests]. Voenno-istoricheskij zhurnal [Military History Journal], 6, рр. 40-42. [In Russian].

Stettinius, E. (2000). Lend-liz – oruzhie pobedy [Lend-Lease – a weapon of victory]. Zagadki lend-liza [Riddles of Lend-Lease]. Moskva: Veche. [In Russian].

Shervud, R. (1958). Ruzvel’t i Gopkins: glazami ochevidca: V 2 t. Т. 1. [Roosevelt and Hopkins: Through the Eyes of an Eyewitness: 2 vol. (Vol. 1, рр. 596-599)]. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo inostrannoj literatury. [In Russian].

Kitchen, M. (1987). Winston Churchill and the Soviet Union During the Second World War. Historical Journal, 30, рр. 419-420. [In English].

Mastny, V. (1972). Stalin and the Prospects of a Separate Peace in World War II. The American Historical Review, 5, (77), рр. 1365-1388. [In English].

Boffa, Dzh. (1994). Istoriya Sovetskogo Soyuza: V 2 t. Т. 2. [History of the Soviet Union: 2 vol. (Vol. 2, р. 132)]. Moskva: Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. [In Russian].

Goldsmith, R.W. (1946). Power of Victory: Munitions Output in World War II. Military Affairs, 1, (10), р. 757. [In English].

Vert, A. (1967). Rossiya v vojne. [Russia in the war]. Moskva: Progress. [In Russian].

Wielka Internetowa Encyklopedia Multimedialna. [Great Internet Multimedia Encyclopedia]. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://wiem.onet.pl/wiem/006fl6.html [In Polish].

Paperno, A.X. (1997). O lend-lize i tixookeanskoj transportnoj e’popee [About Lend-Lease and the Pacific Transport Epic]. Otechestvennaya istoriya [Otechestvennaya istoriya], 2, (109). [In Russian].

Golovatina, P.M. Lend-liz kak osobaya forma sotrudnichestva mezhdu gosudarstvami: vzglyad zarubezhnoj istoriografii [Lend-Lease as a Special Form of Cooperation between States: A View of Foreign Historiography]. [Online]. Avaliable from: https://elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/ 10995/29478/1/mion_2002_6_22.pdf [In Russian].

Ryzhkov, N.I. (2012). Velikaya Otechestvennaya: lend-liz [Great Patriotic War: Lend-Lease]. Moskva: “E’konomicheskaya gazeta”. [In Russian].

Baranov, A.E. (2015). Lend-liz. Severnye konvoi. Strategicheskoe znachenie [Lend-Lease. Northern convoys. Strategic importance] Voennoe obozrenie. [Militari review], 13 iyulya. [Online]. Avaliable from: https://topwar.ru/78712-lend-liz-severnye-konvoi-strategicheskoe-znachenie.html [In Russian].

Chancev, A.V. (2016). E’konomicheskij fundament Pobedy: paralleli istorii i sovremennosti: k 70-letiyu Pobedy SSSR v Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojne. [The economic foundation of Victory: parallels between history and modernity: to the 70th anniversary of the Victory of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War]. Sankt-Peterburg, Aletejya. [In Russian].

(1946). Vneshnyaya torgovlya Soyuza SSR za period s 22.VI-1941 po 31.XII-1945 goda. Statisticheskij spravochnik (po dannym operativnogo ucheta). Moskva: Ministerstvo vneshnej torgovli SSSR. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://istmat.info/files/uploads/40607/rgae_ 413.12.10949_vneshnyaya_torgovlya_sssr_1941-1945.pdf [In Russian].

Mamyachenkov, V.N. (2004). Lend-liz v cifrax: povody k razmyshleniyu [Lend-Lease in numbers: reasons for reflection]. Pyatye Tatishhevskie chteniya. Duxovnost’ i nravstvennost’ na Urale v proshlom i nastoyashhem: tezisy dokladov i soobshhenij, Ekaterinburg, 22-23 aprelya 2004 g. Ekaterinburg: IIiA UrO RAN. [In Russian].

Kubat’ko, I.K & Kubatko, O.I. (2002). Oxota na flagmanov [Hunt for flagships]. Smolensk: Rusich. [In Russian].

Stepanenko, I.N. (1976). Polumiane nebo [Fiery sky]. Kyiv: Vyd-vo polit. lit. Ukrainy. [In Ukranian].

Bushyn, M.I., Fyl, O.M. & Vyshnevskyi, V.Ie. (Comps.). (2020). “Ya – Stepanenko. Bii pryimaiu!”: dokumenty i materialy: knyha prysviachuietsia 75-richnytsi Peremohy nad natsyzmom u Druhii svitovii viini ta 100-richnytsi z dnia narodzhennia Ivana Nykyforovycha Stepanenka [“I am Stepanenko. I accept the battle!”: Documents and materials: the book is dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Victory over Nazism in the Second World War and the 100th anniversary of the birth of Ivan Nikiforovich Stepanenko]. Cherkasy: Hordiienko Ye.I. [ Ukranian].

Korol’, A. & Fil’, A. (2019). “Ya – Korol’, cel’ vizhu, atakuyu!” [“I am the King, I see the target, I attack!”]. Cherkassy: Gordienko E.I. [In Russian].

Mariinskij, E.P. (2005). Ya dralsya na “Ae’rokobre” [“I fought in the Aircobra“]. Moskva: Yauza, E’ksmo. [In Russian].

Drabkin, A. (2006). Ya dralsya s asami Lyuftvaffe [I fought with the aces of the Luftwaffe]. Moskva: Yauza, E’ksmo. [In Russian].

Fyl, O. (2021). Ukraina ХХ. U spohadakh suchasnykiv [Ukraine XX. In the memories of contemporaries]. Kn. 1. Cherkasy: Hordiienko Ye.I. [In Ukranian].

Chernikov, Stanislav. (2014). Tankovyj lend-liz [Tank Lend-Lease.], 9 aprelya. [Online]. Avaliable from: warspot.ru/150-tankovyy-lend-liz [In Russian].

Loza, D.F. (2005). Tankist na “inomarke”. Pobedili Germaniyu, razbili Yaponiyu [Tanker in a “foreign car”. They defeated Germany, defeated Japan]. Moskva: Yauza, E’ksmo. [In Russian].

Budnickij, Oleg. (2015). Lend-liz: fakty i mify [Lend-Lease: facts and myths], 29 aprelya. [Online]. Avaliable from: https://www.forbes.ru/mneniya-column/istoriya/288019-lend-liz-fakty-i-mify [In Russian].

Fil’, A. & Kuz’menko, D. (2010). Oni srazhalis’ za Rodinu… [They fought for their homeland...]. Kiev: Diaprint. [In Russian].

Fil’, A. & Lekar’, S. (2012). Geroj Sovetskogo Soyuza. Besedy. V 2-x knigax [Hero of the Soviet Union. Conversations. In 2 books]. Kn. 2. Khar’kov: Faktor. [In Russian].

Fil’, A. (2011). Otvazhnye lyudi [Brave people]. Khar’kov: Faktor. [In Russian].

Vert, Aleksandr. (2003). Rossiya v vojne 1941-1945 [Russia in the war 1941-1945]. Moskva: Rusich. [In Russian].

Fil’, A. & Lekar’, S. (2012). Geroj Sovetskogo Soyuza. Besedy. V 2-x knigax [Hero of the Soviet Union. Conversations. In 2 books]. Kn. 1. Khar’kov: Faktor. [In Russian].