Hungary Relations with Neighboring Countries in the XX – early XXI Century

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Abstract

The article focuses on Hungary’s relations with Slovakia and Ukraine. It is concluded that the foreign policy of Hungary is radicalized at the beginning of the XXI century, which is manifested in the growing pressure on neighboring countries, in particular Ukraine, in order to provide autonomy to members of the Hungarian ethnic minority. It was found that this policy implements the idea of “Greater Hungary”, which must ensure the dominance of the unification and re-assimilation processes and the integration of the Hungarian nation in Eastern Europe around Budapest. It is proved that the preconditions for its development established the Treaty of Trianon, as a result of which the country lost two thirds of its territory and one third of its population. It was found that the antagonism inherent in the disregard of ethnic principle during the establishment of borders after the World War I prompted Hungary to resort to a forceful scenario of resolving territorial disputes, which dominated in the first half of the XX century. It was revealed that the change in the geopolitical situation in the second half of the XX century made it impossible to implement thus scenario, which led to a change in Hungary’s strategy and tactics to return the territories lost as a result of the World War I, II,. So Hungary transfers the solving of disputes with neighboring countries in the legal field, on a bilateral basis. Hungary has relied on the cultural and linguistic unification of the nation, based on the preservation of national traditions. The author concludes that, despite the differences in the situation with the Hungarian community in Slovakia and Ukraine, Hungary uses similar tools to promote the idea of a “Greater Hungary” and pressure on neighboring countries. Hungary’s policy poses a threat to Ukraine’s national security. Its methods lead to periodic interference in the policies of neighboring countries. This should be considered as one of the elements of the policy of “soft accession” of the Hungarian-speaking part of Transcarpathia to Hungary, which can be regarded as one of the elements of hybrid wars of the early XXI century.

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How to Cite
Perga, T. (2021) “Hungary Relations with Neighboring Countries in the XX – early XXI Century”, Problems of World History, (15), pp. 74-91. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-15-3.

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Articles
Author Biography

T. Perga

Perga Tetyana – Ph.D. in History, Senior Research Fellow, Senior Research Fellow of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.

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