Main Article Content
The article examines the problem of relations between the two leading countries of the world – Great Britain and the United States, which had a significant impact on the international political situation in the world in 1939–1941, and still have nowadays. As a vector of research, the author used the factor of American military aid to the British governments of N. Chamberlain and W. Churchill to fight against Nazi Germany. According to this, the author aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis and his own assessment of the United States’ position on providing Britain with the necessary weapons and ammunition at the beginning of World War II.
During the research the author used a comparative-historical method to analyze various factors influencing the US position on military assistance to London, a problem-chronological method to present the material in chronological order, and a statistical – to analyze the attitude of ordinary Americans on important decisions of the Roosevelt administration. That allowed the author to analyze and rethink the evolution of the United States’ position on Britain in the problem of providing military aid regarding the current geopolitical situation.
The author works out that under the necessity of supporting London with various types of weapons, armament and ammunition to fight against Hitler’s regime the United States significantly changed the principles of its foreign policy – from “isolationism” in 1939 to its cancellation in the late 1941. At the same time, according to the author, this process was caused by a number of factors, including both the “isolationist” opposition in Congress and the Roosevelt administration’s gradual understanding of the Nazi regime threat to the security of the United States.
| Abstract views: 40 | PDF Downloads: 49 |
Lash, J. (1976). Roosevelt and Churchill, 1939‒1941: The Partnership that Saved the West. New York: Norton. [In English].
Langer, W., Gleason, S. (1952). The Challenge to Isolation. The World Crisis of 1937‒1940 and American Foreign Policy. Vol. II. New York: Harper & Row. [In English].
Cull, N.J. (1995). Selling War: the British Propaganda Campaign against American “Neutrality” in World War II. New York: Oxford University Press. [In English].
Pyck, S. (2006). SSHA – Brytania: “Osoblyvi Vidnosyny”. Kyiv: Znannia. [In Ukrainian].
Klynina, T. (2012). “Osoblyvi” anhlo-amerykanski vidnosyny (1939–1949): istoriohrafia problemy. Shid. No 6 (120), 104-108. [Online]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.21847/1728-9343.2012.6(120).16666 [In Ukrainian].
Yakovenko, N.L. (2003). Velyka Brytaniya v sychasniy systemi mizhnarodnyh vidnosyn: zayavka na yevropeyske liderstvo. Kyiv: Naukovyi svit. [In Ukrainian].
Rosenman, S. (Ed.) (1941). The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1939 Vol.: War – and Neutrality. New York: The Macmillan Company. [Online]. Available from: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/ppotpus/4926579.1939.001?view=toc [In English].
Berle, B. (Ed.) (1973). Navigating the Rapids, 1918–1971: From the Papers of Adolf A. Berle. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. [In English].
Hooker, N. (Ed.) (1956). The Moffat Papers: Selections from the Diplomatic Journals of Jay Pierrepont Moffat, 1919–1943. Сambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press [In English].
New York Times (14.12.1939). Duff Cooper is Picketed. [Online]. Available from: https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1939/12/14/issue.html [In English].
Perkins, E. (Ed.) (1956). Foreign Relations of the United States. Diplomatic Papers 1939. Vol. 2 (General. The British Commonwealth and Europe). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. [In English].
Reynolds, D. (2000). Rich Relations: The American Occupation of Britain, 1942–1945. London: Phoenix. [In English].
Reynolds, D. (1983). Lord Lothian and Anglo-American Relations, 1939–1940. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Volume 73, No. 2, 1-65. [Online]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.2307/1006337 [In English].
Ickes, H. (1954). The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes. Vol. III. The Lowering Clouds 1939–1941. New York: Simon & Schuster. [In English].
Hull, C. (1948). The Memoirs of Cordell Hull. Vol. 1. New York: The Macmillan Company. [In English].
Davis, J. (2013). The Ministry of Economic Warfare: Anglo-American Relations from 1939‒1941. (Masters of Arts in History). Lynchburg: Lyberty University. [Online]. Available from: https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1269&context=masters [In English].
Perkins, E. (Ed.) (1958). Foreign Relations of the United States. Diplomatic Papers 1940. Vol. 3 (The British Commonwealth, The Soviet Union, The Near East and Africa). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. [In English].
Kimball, W. (Ed.) (1984). Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence. Vol. 1: Alliance Emerging (October 1933 – November 1942). ‒ Princeton: University Press [In English].
Maisky, I. (1980). Vospominaniya sovetskogo diplomata, 1925–1945. Tomsk: Uzbekistan. [In Russian].
Sweet, P., etc. (Eds) (1959). Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918–1945. Series D (1937–1945). Vol. 11 (September 1, 1940 – January 31, 1941). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. [In English].
Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack (1946). Pearl Harbor Attack: Hearings. 79th Congress of the United States. Part 5 (December 31, 1945 ‒ January 5, 1946). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/congress/Vol05.pdf [In English].
Salmon, F. (n. d.). 1940 Popular Vote by Counties. Atlas of the U.S. Presidential Elections since 1789. [Online]. Available from: http://geoelections.free.fr/USA/elec_comtes/1940.htm [In English].
Nicolson, N. (Ed.) (1967). The Diaries & Letters of Harold Nicolson. Vol. II, The War Years 1939‒1945. New York: Atheneum. [In English].
Record Service of Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library (n. d.). Press Conferences of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933 ‒ 1945. Series 1: Press Conference Transcripts. [Online]. Available from: http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/archives/collections/franklin/index.php?p= collections/findingaid&id=508&q=press+conferences [In English].
Petrosyants, O. V. (2014). SSHA i natsystkaya Germaniya: ot Munhena do Perl-Harbora (PhD in History). Moskva: MGU. [In Russian].
United States Congress (1941). Congressional Record. Vol. 87. Part 2 (February 19 – March 18, 1941). Proceedings and Debates of Sessions of the First Session of the 77th Congress. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office. [Online]. Available from: https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/GPO-CRECB-1941-pt2/ [In English].
American Institute of Public Opinion (1972). The Gallup Poll. Public Opinion 1935–1971. Vol. 1 (1935–1948). New York: Random House. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/Gallup/Gallup.pdf [In English].
Churchill, W. (1941). The Fourth Climacteric, 1941. Winston Churchill Speeches from 1941–1949, 1963. American’s National Churchill Museum [Online]. Available from: https://www.nationalchurchillmuseum.org/the-fourth-climacteric.html [In English].
Record Service of Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library (n. d.). Roosevelt, Franklin D. Papers as President: Map Room Papers, 1941‒1945. Series 1: General. Box № 1: FDR ‒ Churchill, July–December 1941 (Vol. 3). [Online]. Available from: http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/_resources/images/mr/mr0005.pdf [In English].
Rosenman, S. (Ed.) (1950). The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt. 1941 Vol.: War – and Aid to Democracies. New York: Harper & Brothers. [Online]. Available from: https://quod.lib.umich.edu/p/ppotpus/4926590.1941.001/1?view=pdf&size=100 [In English].