The Ideal of Western Democracy and Law State as a Conceptual Basis for the Formation of National Political Interests

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O. Chmorgun

Abstract

The proposition that modern western democracy is a point of intersection of modern political, economic and national interests is substantiated. In particular in the process of becoming a capitalist
society, the political interests of the “middle class”, which are realized primarily through collegial legislative bodies in opposition to the institutions of feudal absolutism and despotism, were
inextricably linked with economic interests – mass interest in the creation of ground foundations of free competition, as shown in the article, formed the political interests of the general population and
became a necessary prerequisite for the emergence of Western political democracy that arose as a result of great European and American bourgeois social revolutions.
At the same time it is shown that the antimonarchical system of separation of powers based on the mechanism of “checks and balances”, the introduction of the principle of equality before the law
contribute to the realization of the ideal of the state “night watchman” and, thus, activate the process of becoming national markets; it was thanks to these political institutions and the emergence of civil
society that guaranteed the assertion of inalienable rights and freedoms and the filling of political interests with democratic content as one of the most important components of a modern law state that
the advanced capitalist countries pushed. That is why the famous “Declaration of the Rights of Freedom of Man and Citizen”, which refers to the powerful motives of activity in the political realm of
citizens of the law state proclaims that the “source of sovereign power is the nation”. It is also proved that the extremely negative impact on the democratization of the Ukrainian statehood and the development of a market economy, which made possible the Russian aggression against Ukraine, makes the current dismantling by the leading EU and US countries a model of a social state and a “mixed economy”, which has consequently become the next financial world crisis. In turn, the steady increase in global instability and the presence of a powerful comprador fifth column in Ukraine, require the formation of political institutions and mechanisms in our country that ensure maximum consideration and realization of political interests of nationally conscious citizens through an effective model of presidentialism, which all these years is only being imitated in our country. In the light of the world experience, a number of systemic characteristics of such a form of political government and a consistent democratic social order have been analyzed.

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How to Cite
Chmorgun, O. (2019) “The Ideal of Western Democracy and Law State as a Conceptual Basis for the Formation of National Political Interests”, Problems of World History, (9), pp. 9-33. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2019-9-1.

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Articles
Author Biography

O. Chmorgun

Shmorgun Oleksandr – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Leading Research Fellow of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.

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