Historical Memory and Practices of Monumental Commemoration of World War I in Australia (Part 2)

Main Article Content


The authors’ research attention is focused on the specifics of the Australian memorial practices dedicated to the World War I. The statement is substantiated that in the Australian context memorials and military monuments formed a special post-war and post-traumatic part of the visual memory of the first Australian global military conflict.

The features of the Australian memorial concept are clarified, the social function of the monuments and their important role in the psychological overcoming of the trauma and bitter losses experienced are noted. The multifaceted aspects of visualization of the monumental memory of the World War I in Australia are analyzed. Monuments and memorials are an important part of Australia’s visual heritage.

It is concluded that each Australian State has developed its own concept of memory, embodied in various types and nature of monuments. The main ones are analyzed in detail: Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne (1928–1934); Australian War Memorial in Canberra (1941); Sydney Cenotaph (1927-1929) and Anzac Memorial in Sydney (1934); Desert Mounted Corps Memorial in Western Australia (1932); Victoria Memorials: Avenue of Honour and Victory Arch in Ballarat (1917-1919), Australian Ex-Prisoners of War Memorial (2004), Great Ocean Road – the longest nationwide memorial (1919-1932); Hobart War Memorial in the Australian State of Tasmania (1925), as well as Villers-Bretonneux Australian National Memorial in France dedicated to French-Australian cooperation during the World War I (1938).

The authors demonstrate an inseparable connection between the commemorative practices of Australia and the politics of national identity, explore the trends in the creation and development of memorial practices. It is noted that the overwhelming majority of memorial sites are based on the clearly expressed function of a place of memory, a place of mourning and commemoration. It was found that the representation of the memorial policy of the memory of Australia in the first post-war years was implemented at the beginning at the local level and was partially influenced by British memorial practices, transforming over time into a nationwide cultural resource.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Zernetska, O. and Myronchuk, O. (2021) “Historical Memory and Practices of Monumental Commemoration of World War I in Australia (Part 2)”, Problems of World History, (13), pp. 203–221. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-13-10.
Author Biographies

O. Zernetska

Zernetska Olga – Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Global and Civilization Processes of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.

O. Myronchuk

Myronchuk Olena – Research Fellow of the Sector of Social Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.


Cenotaph. New South Wales State Heritage Register. [Online]. Office of Environment and Heritage. Available from: https://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/heritageapp/ViewHeritageItem Details.aspx?ID=5060966 [Accessed: 29th July 2020]. [In English].

Inglis, K. (1999). Sacred places: war memorials in the Australian landscape. Carlton, Victoria: Miegunyah Press. [In English].

Inglis, K.S. (1993). Entombing Unknown Soldiers: from London and Paris to Baghdad. History and Memory, 5, (2), рр. 7-31. [In English].

Franki, G. (2000). The sailor on the Sydney Cenotaph. Sabretache: the journal of the Military Collectors Society of Australia, XLI, (1), рр. 30-35. [In English].

Tranter, R. (2004). Bertram Mackennal: a career. Cremorne, NSW: Robin Tranter. [In English].

The Cenotaph. Bronze figures unveiled. Impressive ceremony. (1929, February 22). [Online]. The Sydney Morning Herald. Avaliable from:https://www.smh.com.au/national/nsw/from-the-archives-the-official-unveiling-of-the-sydney-cenotaph-20190219-p50yu4.html [Accessed: 26th July 2020]. [In English].

Australia’s favourite hero. [Online]. ANZAK. Available from: http://www.anzacs.net/Simpson.htm [Accessed: 27th July 2020]. [In English].

John Simpson Kirkpatrick. [Online]. ANZAK house. Available from: http://www.anzachouse.com/john_simpson_kirkpatrick-overall.html [Accessed: 28th July 2020]. [In English].

Buley, E. (1916). Glorious deeds of Australasians in the Great War. London: Andrew Melrose. [In English].

Cochrane, P. (1992). Simpson and the Donkey: the making of a legend. Burwood: Melbourne University Press. [In English].

Lack, J. (2005). Buley Ernest Charles (1869-1933). [Online]. Australian Dictionary of Biography, Supplementary Volume. Available from: http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/buley-ernest-charles-12825 [Accessed: 11th July 2020]. [In English].

Graham, W. (2006). The donkey vote: a VC for Simpson – the case against (Does John Simpson Kirkpatrick deserve a Victoria Cross?). Sabretache: the journal of the Military Collectors Society of Australia, 47, (4), рр. 25-37.

Defence Honours and Awards. [Online]. Australian Government. Department of Defence. Available from: https://www.defence.gov.au/medals/ [Accessed: 7th May 2020]. [In English].

Curran, T. (1994). Across the bar: the story of Simpson, the man with the donkey: Australia and Tyneside’s great military hero. Yeronga: Ogmios Publications. [In English].

Victoria Cross for Australia. [Online]. Australian Government. Department of Defence. Available from: https://www.defence.gov.au/medals/Hon-Decs/Gall-Dist/Victoria-Cross.asp [Accessed: 7th May 2020]. [In English].

Mount Clarence & Memorial. [Online]. Rainbow Coast. Available from:https://www.rainbowcoast.com.au/areas/albany/mountclarence.htm [Accessed: 14th March 2020]. [In English].

Arch of Victory. [Online]. Monument Australia. Available from: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/multiple/display/30181-arch-of-victory [Accessed: 19th March 2020]. [In English].

Wright, T. (2018, November 9). Broken from the inside: how four devastating years are still shaping us. [Online]. The Sydney Morning Herald. Avaliable from: https://www.smh.com.au/national/broken-from-the-inside-how-four-devastating-years-are-still-shaping-us-20181105-p50e2s.html [Accessed: 4th May 2020]. [In English].

The Prince of Wales visit to Ballarat. (1920, June 3). [Online]. Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate. Avaliable from: https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/15199808 [Accessed: 4th May 2020]. [In English].

The Australian Ex-Prisoners of War Memorial. [Online]. Available from: http://www.powmemorialballarat.com.au/ [Accessed: 28th June 2020]. [In English].

Hobart War Memorial (Cenotaph). [Online]. ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee. Avaliable from: https://anzacday.org.au/hobart-war-memorial-cenotaph [Accessed: 4th June 2020]. [In English].

The Villers-Bretonneux Memorial, France. [Online]. The Great War. 1914-1918. Avaliable from: http://www.greatwar.co.uk/somme/memorial-villers-bretonneux.htm [Accessed: 21th June 2020]. [In English].

The Great Ocean Road. [Online]. The Complete Guide. Avaliable from: https://www.greatoceanroadaccommodation.directory/great-ocean-road/ [Accessed: 7th May 2020]. [In English].

Great Ocean Road in World class. (1962, August 15). [Online]. The Age. Avaliable from: https://news.google.com.au/newspapers?id=Xl8RAAAAIBAJ&sjid=jJYDAAAAIBAJ&pg=4214,2226082&dq=great+ocean+road&hl=en [Accessed: 7th May 2020]. [In English].

Johnston, M. (2011, April 7). Great Ocean Road added to Australia’s national heritage list. [Online]. Herald Sun. Avaliable from: https://www.heraldsun.com.au/archive/news/great-ocean-road-added-to-australias-national-heritage-list/news-story/0c459037912f3382013471c39764c099 [Accessed: 7th May 2020]. [In English].

Rood, D. (2007, April 10). Road’s still great, 75 years on. [Online]. The Age. Avaliable from: https://www.theage.com.au/national/roads-still-great-75-years-on-20070410-ge4mi6.html [Accessed: 7th May 2020]. [In English].

Davis, M. (2007, April 14). Hard road to honouring Diggers. [Online]. The Australian. Avaliable from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/hard-road-to-honouring-diggers/story-e6frg6nf-1111113340576 [Accessed: 7th May 2020]. [In English].

World War One. [Online]. Monument Australia. Avaliable from: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/ww1 [Accessed: 16th March 2020]. [In English].

Grey, J. (2008). A military history of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. [In English].

Scates, B. (2006). Return to Gallipoli: walking the battlefields of the Great War. [In English].

Most read articles by the same author(s)