Strategic Approaches and Priorities in U.S. Foreign Policy: from Harry Truman to Donald Trump

Main Article Content

Abstract

The article examines the evolution of strategic approaches and priorities of U.S. international policy after the Second World War to present. An overview of American foreign policy concepts and
doctrines allows concluding that the main task of U.S. foreign policy throughout this period was to ensure the dominant role of the state within the international system. The analysis of foreign policy documents confirms the conclusions of a number of American researchers that the concept of preponderance in its various interpretations served as a “Grand strategy” that encompasses the narrower in content and shorter functional doctrines of deterrence, offshore balancing, concert-balance or Blocpolitik. Correction of foreign policy priorities of the president D. Trump reflects an objective process of
adaptation to a multipolar international system. It is suggested that the conditions of multipolar competition will force the USA to use new instruments of influence, such as multilateral and multipurpose containment, various forms of balancing on the basis of regional alliances, coalitions and security communities, or offshore intervention in cases if it can provide the USA benefits solving specific problems.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 56 | PDF Downloads: 31 |

Article Details

How to Cite
Tolstov, S. (2018) “Strategic Approaches and Priorities in U.S. Foreign Policy: from Harry Truman to Donald Trump”, Problems of World History, (5), pp. 66-95. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2018-5-4.

Section
Articles
Author Biography

S. Tolstov

Tolstov Sergiy – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Transatlantic Research of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”

References

Bzhezinskiy Z. Velikaya shakhmatnaya doska (Gospodstvo Ameriki i ego geostrategicheskie imperativy) / Per. s angl. O. Ural'skoy. – M.: Mezhdunar. otnosheniya, 1999. – 256 s.

Kissindzher G. Diplomatiya / Per. s angl. V.V. L'vova; posleslovie G.A. Arbatova; nauch. red. A.A. Sidorov. – M.: Ladomir, 1997. – 848 s.

Layne C. From Preponderance to Offshore Balancing: America’s Future Grand Strategy // International Security. – 1997. – Vol. 22. – № 1. – Summer. – P. 86-124.

Lind M. The American Way of Strategy: U.S. Foreign Policy and the American Way of Life. – New York: Oxford University press, 2006. – 294 r.

Lind M. Land of Promise: An Economic History of the United States. – New York: HarperCollins, 2012. – 586 p.

Lind M. Blocpolitik // The National Interest. – 2017. – July-August. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://nationalinterest.org/feature/blocpolitik-21208

Porter P. Why America’s Grand Strategy Has Not Changed. Power, Habit, and the U.S. Foreign Policy Establishment // International Security. – 2018. – Vol. 42. – № 4. – Spring. – P. 9-46.

Snayder D. Mify imperii i strategii gegemonii // Prognozis. – 2006. – № 8. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://www.intelros.ru/2007/08/09/mify_imperii_i_ strategii_gegemonii.html

Smith T. America’s Mission. The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century. – Princeton, New York: Princeton University Press, 1994. – XVIII, 455 p.

Hunt M.H. The American Ascendancy. How the United States Gained and Wield Global Dominance. – Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007. – 405 p.

Gardner L.C. A Covenant with Power: America World Order from Wilson to Reagan. – New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. – XV, 251 p.

Williams W.A. Empire as a Way of Life: An Essay on the Causes and Character of America’s Present Predicament along with a Few Thoughts About an Alternative. – New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. – 225 p.

Leffler M.P. A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War. – Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1992. – 712 p.

Schlesinger A.M. Jr. The Cycles of American History. – Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986. – XIII, 498 p.

Іstorіya Spoluchenikh Shtatіv. Naris / Gol. red. G. Sinkotta. – K.: Іnformatsіyne agentstvo Spoluchenikh Shtatіv, 2002. – 406 s.

NSC 20/1: U.S. objectives with respect to Russia // Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 1945-1950 / Ed. by Th.H. Etzold, J.L. Gaddis. – New York: Columbia University Press, 1978. – P. 173-203.

NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security (April 14, 1950) // Naval War College Review. – 1975. – Vol. XXVII. – May-June. – P. 51-108.

NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security (April 14, 1950) / History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive, US National Archives. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/116191

Address delivered by Secretary Acheson at the University of California, Berkeley (March 16, 1950) // Department of State Bulletin. – 1950. – March 27. – P. 473-478.

Mal'kov V. Khotel li Stalin razvyazat' Tret'yu mirovuyu voynu? Prognoz Gustava Khil'gera, may 1951 g. // Rossiya KhKhI. – 1997. – № 7. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://www.ecc.ru/XXI/RUS_21/ARXIV/1997/malkov_07_1997.htm

American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC-68 / Ed. by E.R. May. – Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1993. – 240 p.

Krechetnikov A. Karibskiy krizis: mir u opasnoy cherty // Bi-bi-si, 13 oktyabrya 2012 g. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: https://www.bbc.com/russian/russia/2012/10/120928_ caribbean_crisis

Maknamara R. Putem oshibok k katastrofe. Opyt vyzhivaniya v pervom veke yadernoy ery / Per. s angl. A. Antoshinoy. – M.: Nauka, 1988. – 149 s.

Zapis' besedy A.I. Mikoyana s Prezidentom Dzh. Kennedi. 29 noyabrya 1962 g. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: https://nsarchive2.gwu.edu//rus/text_files/CMCrisis/59.PDF

Kennedy J.F. Commencement Address at American University, Washington, D.C., June 10, 1963 / The American Presidency Project. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=9266

Bush G. National Security Strategy of the United States. – Washington: The White House, March 1990. – V, 32 p.

Excerpts from Pentagon’s Plan: “Prevent the Re-Emergence of a New Rival” // The New York Times. – 1992. – March 8. – P. 14.

Bush G. National Security Strategy of the United States. – Washington: The White House, 1993. – II, 21 p.

Liber K.A., Liber R.Dzh. Strategiya natsional'noy bezopasnosti Prezidenta Busha // Vneshnyaya politika SShA. Elektronnyy zhurnal Gosudarstvennogo departamenta SShA. – 2002. – T. 7. – № 4. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://www.elibrary.lt/resursai/Uzsienio%20leidiniai/eJournal/vp_10.pdf

Bush G.W. National Security Strategy of the United States of America. – Washington: The White House, September 17, 2002. – VII, 31 p.

Friedman G. The Real World Order // Stratfor Global Intellegence. 18.08.2008. [Elektroniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://www.stratfor.com/weekly/real_world_order

Jervis R. The Remaking of a Unipolar World // The Washington Quarterly. – 2006. – Vol. 29. – № 3. – Summer. – P. 7-19.

Obama B. National Security Strategy. – Washington: The White House, February 2015. – III, 29 p.

Pres. Obama on Fareed Zakaria GPS // CNN Press Room. February 1st, 2015. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: http://cnnpressroom.blogs.cnn.com/2015/02/01/pres-obama-on-fareed-zakaria-gps-cnn-exclusive/

Trump’s Speech to Congress: Video and Transcript // The New York Times. – 2017. – Feb. 28. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/28/us/politics/trump-congress-video-transcript.html?_r=0

Remarks by President Trump on the Administration’s National Security Strategy // The White House. December 18, 2017. [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-administrations-national-security-strategy/

H.R. 3364 Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act. 115th Congress (2017-2018). [Elektronniy resurs]. – Rezhim dostupu: https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/3364/all-info

Trump D.J. National Security Strategy of the United States of America. December 2017. – Washington: The White House, 2017. – VI, 56 p.

Kaine T. A New Truman Doctrine: Grand Strategy in a Hyperconnected World // Foreign Affairs. – 2017. – Vol. 96. – № 4. – July/August. – R. 36-53.