Main Article Content
The authors’ research attention is focused on the specifics of the Australian memorial practices dedicated to the World War I. The statement is substantiated that in the Australian context memorials and military monuments formed a special post-war and post-traumatic part of the visual memory of the first Australian global military conflict.
The features of the Australian memorial concept are clarified, the social function of the monuments and their important role in the psychological overcoming of the trauma and bitter losses experienced are noted. The multifaceted aspects of visualization of the monumental memory of the World War I in Australia are analyzed. Monuments and memorials are an important part of Australia’s visual heritage.
It is concluded that each Australian State has developed its own concept of memory, embodied in various types and nature of monuments. The main ones are analyzed in detail: Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne (1928–1934); Australian War Memorial in Canberra (1941); Sydney Cenotaph (1927-1929) and Anzac Memorial in Sydney (1934); Desert Mounted Corps Memorial in Western Australia (1932); Victoria Memorials: Avenue of Honour and Victory Arch in Ballarat (1917-1919), Australian Ex-Prisoners of War Memorial (2004), Great Ocean Road – the longest nationwide memorial (1919-1932); Hobart War Memorial in the Australian State of Tasmania (1925), as well as Villers-Bretonneux Australian National Memorial in France dedicated to French-Australian cooperation during the World War I (1938).
The authors demonstrate an inseparable connection between the commemorative practices of Australia and the politics of national identity, explore the trends in the creation and development of memorial practices. It is noted that the overwhelming majority of memorial sites are based on the clearly expressed function of a place of memory, a place of mourning and commemoration. It was found that the representation of the memorial policy of the memory of Australia in the first post-war years was implemented at the beginning at the local level and was partially influenced by British memorial practices, transforming over time into a nationwide cultural resource.
| Abstract views: 29 | PDF Downloads: 13 |
Dennis, P. & Grey, J. (eds). (1995). The Oxford companion to Australian military history. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. [In English].
Grey, J. (2008). A military history of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. [In English].
Inglis, K.S. (1985). A sacred place: the making of the Australian War Memorial. War & Society, 3, (2), рр. 99-126. [In English]. https://doi.org/10.1179/106980485790303999
Shrine of Remembrance. [Online]. Available from: https://www.shrine.org.au/ [In English].
Kipling, R. (1934). Ode. Melbourne Shrine of Remembrance. [Online]. Available from: http://eng-poetry.ru/Poem.php?PoemId=5985 [In Russian].
Australian War Memorial. [Online]. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/about/ organisation/history [In English].
McKernan, M. (1991). Here is their spirit: a history of the Australian War Memorial 1917-1990. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press. [In English].
Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier. [Online]. Australian War Memorial. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/visit/visitor-information/features/hall-of-memory/tomb [In English].
Zernetska, O. (2018). Kontseptsiia istorychnoi pamiati u Velykii Brytanii [The Concept of Historical Memory in Great Britain]. Problemy vsesvitnoi istorii [Problems of World History], 1, (5), pp. 122-133. [In Ukrainian].
Inglis, K.S. (1993). Entombing Unknown Soldiers: from London and Paris to Baghdad. History and Memory, 5, (2), рр. 7-31. [In English].
Moriarty, C. (1995). The absent dead and figurative First World War memorials. Transactions of the Ancient Monument Society, 39, рр. 7-40. [In English].
Ashcroft, M. (2006). Victoria Cross Heroes. London: Headline Book Publishing. [In English].
Arthur, M. (2005). Symbol of courage: men behind the medal. London: Pan Books. [In English].
Blanch, C. Australia’s Gallipoli Victoria Crosses. [Online]. The Australian War Memorial. Avaliable from: https://www.awm.gov.au/articles/blog/gallipolis-9-vcs [In English].
Victoria Cross. Encyclopedia. [Online]. The Australian War Memorial. Avaliable from: https://www.awm.gov.au/articles/encyclopedia/vic_cross [In English].
New Zealand Memorial. [Online]. Monument Australia. Avaliable from: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/multiple/display/90075-new-zealand-memorial/photo/3 [In English].
Scott, Е. (1941). Australia during the war. Official history of Australia in the War of 1914-1918, Vol. XI. Sydney: Angus and Robertson Ltd. [In English].
Anzac Memorial. [Online]. Available from: https://www.anzacmemorial.nsw.gov.au/ [In English].
The history of the Anzac Memorial. [Online]. Anzac Memorial. Available from: https://www.anzacmemorial.nsw.gov.au/our-stories/history-anzac-memorial [In English].