The Treaty of Trianon as a Source of Instability in the Central-Eastern Europe (Part 1)

Main Article Content

M. Derzhaliuk

Abstract

The article notes that the Trianon Peace Treaty of June 4, 1920 between the Entente countries and Hungary, as a result of the First World War, turned out to be, like all the other six treaties of the Versailles system, mostly unfair. In the forcibly the territory of Hungary decreased by 2/3, the population decreased 2,7 times, a third of the Hungarian ethnic group became part of neighboring states.


It is noted that during 1920-2020. In Hungary, there were no powerful political forces of various trends and trends that would recognize the Trianon Peace Treaty as just. At the same time, the ruling political elites of the neighboring states of Hungary considered and still consider the conditions of the Trianon fair. Such opposite assessments of the consequences of Versailles engendered antagonism, making it impossible to reach a compromise between the countries of Central-Eastern Europe.


Attention is drawn to the fact that during the domination in Europe of the coalition of countries led by Germany of the Versailles Peace Treaty, including the Trianon, were dismantled, a new order was introduced, in which opponents of Versailles – Germany, Italy, Japan, the USSR, played an active role. Hungary, Bulgaria.


It is noted that the winners of the World War ІІ restored the borders of the countries of Germany’s allies in Europe, in accordance with their own geopolitical interests, which corresponded by 70% to the borders established by the Entente after the World War І. The Trianon borders were restored over Hungary by the Paris Peace Treaty of February 10, 1947. The USSR, Great Britain, France and the United States acted from a hegemonic position, were guided by the right of the winner and in many respects imposed on the defeated countries the conditions of the Versailles system were discredited, did not draw proper conclusions and did not build international relations on principles close to justice, but preserved the complicated territorial contradictions of the past with the corresponding treaties.


It is indicated that the threat of assimilation and disappearance of foreign Hungarians is one of the main reasons for the revitalization of modern Hungary. Measures to overcome the syndrome of the dismemberment of the Hungarian nation in Central-Eastern Europe have been going on for centuries with little results; The rate of decline in the number of Hungarians in neighboring states over the past century is the highest, so Budapest believes that there is no time to delay the introduction of autonomy for foreign Hungarians, because in the next 25 years the very need for it will disappear through their disappearance.


It is emphasized that the level of ensuring the rights of the Hungarian minority in Transcarpathia especially affects the relationship of Hungary with Ukraine. The improvement of relations between Hungary and Ukraine has minimal chances, since the positions of the parties on the procedure for the application of educational and language laws in Transcarpathia do not coincide.


Taking into account the decisive activity of Hungary and the Hungarian foreign communities in 2020 (the century of the signing of the Trianon Peace Treaty on June 4, 1920), it is concluded that this problem will not only not lose its relevance, but will significantly increase.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 61 | PDF Downloads: 91 |

Article Details

How to Cite
Derzhaliuk, M. (2020) “The Treaty of Trianon as a Source of Instability in the Central-Eastern Europe (Part 1)”, Problems of World History, (12), pp. 118-151. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2020-12-7.

Section
Articles
Author Biography

M. Derzhaliuk

Derzhaliuk Mykola – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Chief Research Fellow of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.

References

Iván, B.T. & György, R. (1976). Közép-Kelet-Európa gazdasági fejlődése a 19-20. században [Economic development of the Central-Eastern Europe in XIX-XX centuries]. Budapest: Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó. [In Hungarian].

Zejdler, M. (2019). Trianonskij myrnyj dogovor 1920 g. Vzgljad sovremennoj vengerskoj istoriografii [Treaty of Trianon of 1920. The view of modern Hungarian historiography]. Istoricheskaya ekspertiza [Historical expertise], 2. [Online]. Avaliable from: https://istorex.ru/page/zeydler_m_trianonskiy_mirniy_dogovor_1920_g_vzglyad_sovremennoy_vengerskoy_istoriografii [In Russian].

Botos Laszlo. Ut a trianoni bekeparancshoz [Way to Trianon peaceful dictatorship]. [Online]. Avaliable from: http://magyarmegmaradasert.hu/kiletunk/trianon/item/507/-z [In Hungarian].

Trianonrol ertekezett Romsics Ignac Marosvasarhelyen [Lecture of Ignác Romsics in Marosvásárhely town]. [Online]. Avaliable from: https://www.maszol.ro/index.php/kultura/ 54960-trianonrol-ertekezett-romsics-ignac-marosvasarhelyen - 2015. oktober 23 [In Hungarian].

Gusztáv. K. (2004). Franciaország Közép-Kelet-Európa politikája 1918-tól napjainkig [Policy of France in Central-Eastern Europe from 1918 to present time]. Budapest. [In Hungarian].

Zala, T. (1988). Trianon v novom osvjeshcenii [Trianon in new lighted]. Vengerskije novosty [Hungarians news], 9 [in Russian].

Pinter, I. (1975). A Magyar antifasiszta, Hitler-ellenes nemzeti ellenallas tortenetehez. Munkasmozgalomtorteneti tanulmanyok [To the issue of Hungarian antifascist antihitler national resistance. Researches from the history of workers’ movement]. Budapest: Kossuth Könyvkiadó. [In Hungarian].