The Treaty of Trianon as a Source of Instability in the Central-Eastern Europe (Part 3)

Main Article Content

M. Derzhaliuk


The article notes that the Trianon Peace Treaty of June 4, 1920 between the Entente countries and Hungary, as a result of the First World War, turned out to be, like all the other six treaties of the Versailles system, mostly unfair. Forcibly the territory of Hungary decreased by 2/3, the population decreased 2,7 times, a third of the Hungarian ethnic group became part of neighboring states.

It is noted that during 1920-2020. In Hungary, there were no powerful political forces of various trends and trends that would recognize the Trianon Peace Treaty as just. At the same time, the ruling political elites of the neighboring states of Hungary considered and still consider the conditions of the Trianon fair. Such opposite assessments of the consequences of Versailles engendered antagonism, making it impossible to reach a compromise between the countries of Central-Eastern Europe.

Attention is drawn to the fact that during the domination in Europe of the coalition of countries led by Germany of the Versailles Peace Treaty, including the Trianon, were dismantled, a new order was introduced, in which opponents of Versailles – Germany, Italy, Japan, the USSR, Hungary, Bulgaria. played an active role.

It is noted that the winners of the World War ІІ restored the borders of the countries of Germany’s allies in Europe, in accordance with their own geopolitical interests, which corresponded by 70% to the borders established by the Entente after the World War І. The Trianon borders were restored over Hungary by the Paris Peace Treaty of February 10, 1947. The USSR, Great Britain, France and the United States acted from a hegemonic position, were guided by the right of the winner and in many respects imposed on the defeated countries the conditions of the Versailles system were discredited, did not draw proper conclusions and did not build international relations on principles close to justice, but preserved the complicated territorial contradictions of the past with the corresponding treaties.

It is indicated that the threat of assimilation and disappearance of foreign Hungarians is one of the main reasons for the revitalization of modern Hungary. Measures to overcome the syndrome of the dismemberment of the Hungarian nation in Central-Eastern Europe have been going on for centuries with little results; The rate of decline in the number of Hungarians in neighboring states over the past century is the highest, so Budapest believes that there is no time to delay the introduction of autonomy for foreign Hungarians, because in the next 25 years the very need for it will disappear through their disappearance.

It is emphasized that the level of ensuring the rights of the Hungarian minority in Transcarpathia especially affects the relationship of Hungary with Ukraine. The improvement of relations between Hungary and Ukraine has minimal chances, since the positions of the parties on the procedure for the application of educational and language laws in Transcarpathia do not coincide.

Taking into account the decisive activity of Hungary and the Hungarian foreign communities in 2020 (the century of the signing of the Trianon Peace Treaty on June 4, 1920), it is concluded that this problem will not lose its relevance, but will significantly increase.


Download data is not yet available.

| Abstract views: 15 | PDF Downloads: 4 |

Article Details

How to Cite
Derzhaliuk, M. (2021) “The Treaty of Trianon as a Source of Instability in the Central-Eastern Europe (Part 3)”, Problems of World History, (14), pp. 26-106. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-14-2.

Author Biography

M. Derzhaliuk

Derzhaliuk Mykola – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Chief Research Fellow of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.


(1997). Korotka istoriya Uhorshchyny [A brief history of Hungary]. Nired’khaza, 1997. [In Ukrainian].

Ima – es Enekkonyv. Magyar es latin egyhazi enekek es imak gyujtemenye. Hymnus. 12 kiadas. Eger – 1917. [In Hungarian].

Maracz Laszlo, Obrusanszky Borbola. A hunok oroksege. Mikes International, X. evf.,, c. 44-46. [Online]. Available from: http://www.maracz-laszlo-obrusanszky-borbola-a-hunok-oroksege. Mikes International_0110.pdf-[Mikes International]-Genius PDF [In Hungarian].

(1950). Povest’ vremennykh let: perevod (polnyy tekst) [The Tale of Bygone Years: translation (full text)]. M-L. [Online]. Available from: [In Russian].

(1926). Gesta Hungarorum/Magyar Anonymоus/ (Magyarok cselekedetei) Budapest. [In Hungarian].

Tyvodar, M.P. (2003). Etnokul’turni protsesy ta osoblyvosti etnichnoyi istoriyi Zakarpattya v I tysyacholitti nashoyi ery [Ethnocultural processes and features of the ethnic history of Transcarpathia in the first millennium AD]. Naukovyy visnyk Uzhhorods’koho universytetu – Seriya Istoriya [Scientific Bulletin of Uzhhorod University - History Series], 9, pp. 13-25. [In Ukrainian].

Penyak, P. (2012). Chy bulo Zakarpattya skladovoyu chastynoyu Rusi-Ukrayiny na pochatkakh knyazhoyi doby? [Was Transcarpathia an integral part of Russia-Ukraine at the beginning of the princely era?]. Knyazha doba: istoriya i kul’tura [Princely era: history and culture], 6, pp. 9-17. [In Ukrainian].

Akimov, D.Ye. (2017). Mezhdu migatsionizmom i avtokhgonizmom: voprosy proiskhodzheniya rusinov Zakarpat’ya v diskursivnom prostranstve natsional’nogo narativa. Istoriya rusinov [Between migrationism and autochgonism: issues of the origin of the Rusyns of Transcarpathia in the discursive space of the national narrative. History of Rusyns]. Rusin, 50, pp. 179-197. [In Russian].

Vengerskiye zavoyevaniya v Yevrope [Hungarian conquests in Europe]. [Online]. Available from:Венгерские_завоевания_в_Европе [In Russian].

Islamov, T.M., Pushkash, A.I., Shusharin, V.P. (1991). Kratkaya istoriya Vengrii. S drevneyshikh vremen do nashikh dney [A Brief History of Hungary. From ancient times to the present day]. Moskva: Nauka. [In Russian].

Franko, I. (1952). Tvory. V 20-ty tomakh. T. VIII [Writings. In 20 volumes. Vol. VIII]. Kyiv: Khudozhnya literatura. [In Ukrainian].

Franko, I. (1952). Tvory. V 20-ty tomakh. T. ХІХ [Writings. In 20 volumes. Vol. ХІХ]. Kyiv: Khudozhnya literatura. [In Ukrainian].

Perepis’ naseleniya Rossiyskoy imperii 1897 [Population census of the Russian Empire 1897]. [Online]. Available from:Перепись_населения_Российской_ империи [In Russian].

Naseleniye Ukrainy [Population of Ukraine]. [Online]. Available from: https://Население_Украины [In Russian].

Kubiyovych, V. (1996). Naukovi pratsi [Scientific works]Tom 1. Paris-L’viv. [In Ukrainian].

Berend T. Ivan, Ranki Gyorgy. (1976). Kozep-Kelet Europa gazdasagi fejlodese a 10-20. szazadban. – 2 Kiadas. Budapest: Közgazd. és Jogi Kiadó. [In Hungarian].

Derzhalyuk, M.S. (2019). Aktyvizatsiya diyal’nosti Uhorshchyny u rehioni na pochatku XXI st.: prychyny i rezul’taty [Intensification of Hungary’s activity in the region at the beginning of the XXI century: causes and results]. Suspil’no-politychni protsesy. Naukovo-populyarne vydannya – APN [Socio-political processes. Popular science publication – APN], 4, (14). [In Ukrainian].

Borsanyi Andras. (2000). A harom piller. Kozep-Kelet-Europa atlalakulasa es a magyar kulpolitika valtozasa. Budapest: Bona – L Bt. [In Hungarian].

(2015) 94 tysyachi ukraintsev stali vengrami [94 thousand Ukrainians became Hungarians]. Vesti, 2 march, 36(436). [In Ukrainian].

Havrosh, O. Uhortsi v Ukrayini. Problemy podviynoho hromadyanstva ta movy [Hungarians in Ukraine. Problems of dual citizenship and language] [Online]. Available from: [In Ukrainian].

Tuzhanskiy, D. Chto skryvayetsya za ideyey avtonomii vengrov? Riski i vozmozhnosti dlya Ukrainy [What is hidden behind the idea of Hungarian autonomy? Risks and opportunities for Ukraine]. [Online]. Available from: 7063755/ [In Russian].

A migracios folyamatok hatasa a karpataljai magyarok szamanak alakulasa. Metszetek – 2018 [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Fedenets, Ch. (2015). Vopros vengerskogo men’shinstva na fone ukrainskogo krizisa [The issue of the Hungarian minority against the background of the Ukrainian crisis]. Rossiya i Tsentral’naya Yevropa v novykh geopoliticheskikh real’nostyakh. Sb. statey X mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii 10-11 sentyabrya 2015. IYe RAN. [Russia and Central Europe in new geopolitical realities. Sat. articles of the X-th international scientific conference on September 10-11, 2015. IE RAS]. [In Russian].

Folytatodnak a kisebsegi jogszukitesek Ukrajnaban. [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Csikos Sandor, (2015). A Nyugat-vegleg kialakitotta allaspontjat Ukrajnarol. [Online]. “Ruszkaja veszna” januar 26. Available from: kialakitotta-allaspontjat-ukrajnarol [In Hungarian].

Uryad Uhorshchyny vyrazyv protest proty novoho ukrayins’koho zakonu pro osvitu. Uryad Uhorshchyny vyrazyv protest proty novoho ukrayins’koho zakonu pro osvitu [The Hungarian Government protested against the new Ukrainian law on education]. [Online]. Available from: http://www. к /novini/uryad-ugorshhini-viraziv-protest-proty-novogo-ukrainskogo-zakonu-pro-osvitu/ [In Ukrainian].

Prem’yer Uhorshchyny: meni bayduzhe, chy vidpovidaye standartam ukrayins’kyy zakon, pytannya v inshomu [The Prime Minister of Hungary: I don’t care if Ukrainian law meets the standards, the question is different]. [Online]. Available from: http://www.eurointegration/ /2017/11/13/7073569 [In Ukrainian].

Szijjártó, P. Magyarorszag nem tudja tamogatni Ukrajna integracios torekveseit. [Online]. Available from:ártó_magyarorszag_nem _tudja_tamogatni_Ukrajna_integracios_torekveseit [In Hungarian].

A rossz allamkozi kapcsolatok ellenere Magyarorszag tovabbra is fokozottan fogja tamogatni Karpataljat. [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Uhorshchyna sprostuvala pohodzhennya z Ukrayinoyu shlyakhiv vrehulyuvannya movnoho pytannya [Hungary denied that it had agreed with Ukraine on ways to resolve the language issue]. [Online]. Available from: [In Ukrainian].

Uhorshchyna vysunula umovy dlya pochatku dialohu z Ukrayinoyu shchodo movy osvity [Hungary has set the stage for a dialogue with Ukraine on the language of education]. [Online]. Available from: /2018/02/13/7077478 [In Ukrainian].

Hra z “fashyzmom”: chomu Uhorshchyna pidvyshchuye stavky u tysku na Ukrayinu [Playing with “fascism”: why Hungary raises rates on pressure on Ukraine. [Online]. Available from: [In Ukrainian].

Hlava MZS Uhorshchyny rozkrytykuvav zakon pro movu, pokladaye nadiyi na Zelens’koho [The Hungarian Foreign Minister criticized the language law and pinned his hopes on Zelensky]. [Online]. Available from: 2019/04/25/7095661/ [In Ukrainian].

Gulyas Gergely. A magyar kormany soha nem fogja felaldozni egyetlen nemzeti kozzosseget sem nagyhatalmi erdekek oltaran. [Online]. Available from: 200027430-gulyas-gergely-magyar-kormany-soha-nem-fogja-felaldozni [In Hungarian].

Prezydent Uhorshchyny nazvav obnadiylyvymy perehovory iz Zelens’kym [The President of Hungary called the talks with Zelensky encouraging]. [Online]. Available from: [In Ukrainian].

Glava MID Vengrii ozvuchil yazykovyye trebovaniya Budapeshta k Kiyevu [The head of the Hungarian Foreign Ministry announced the language requirements of Budapest to Kiev]. [Online]. Available from: [In Russian].

Kuleba, D. Vengriya tozhe dolzhna poyti na ustupki [Hungary also has to make concessions]. [Online]. Available from: https: [In Russian].

Prystayko, V. My vzhe 100 raziv poyasnyuvaly tse Uhorshchyni! [We have already explained this to Hungary 100 times!]. [Online]. Available from: https: interview/2019/09/20/7100979/ [In Ukrainian].

Szijjártó: állandó megfélemlítésben élnek a magyarok Ukrajnában. [Online]. Available from: https: [In Hungarian].

Szijjarto: Magyarorszag blokkolja a NATO-Ukrajna tanacsuleseket, amig nincs megallapodas a kisebbsegi jogokrol. [Online]. Available from: nincs-megallapodas-a-kisebbsegi-jogokrol [In Hungarian].

Karpatalyai magyar vezetokkel targyalt az ukran oktatasi minister Ungvaron. [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Az elfogadott oktatasi torveny megszegi ezen alkotmanyos koteletsegeket. [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Tuzhanskiy, D. Nenuzhnaya ustupka: nastoyashchiye i vydumannyye ugrozy “vengerskogo rayona” na Zakarpat’ye [Unnecessary concession: real and invented threats of the “Hungarian region” in Transcarpathia]. [Online]. Available from: /rus/articles/2020/06/12/ 7110984 [In Russian].

Kiss Daniel. Szeparatistak a Karpataljai magyarok, vagy csak Kijev nem hallja meg oket? [Online]. Available from: _magyarok_vagy_csak_kijev_nem_hallja_meg_oket [In Hungarian].

Fodor Gyula. A humaneroforras fejlesztes helyzete. Karpatoljan interetnikus megkozelitesben. Doktori ertekezes (PhD). Debrecen, 2010. [In Hungarian].

Fedinec Csilla. A magyar-ukran viszonyrol: eredmenyrol addig nem beszelhetunk, amig nincs Orban-Zelenszkij talalkozo. [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Kuleba, D. Uhorshchyna vzhe pryymaye ukrayins’kyy zakon pro osvitu v yoho nynishniy formi [Hungary is already adopting the Ukrainian law on education in its current form]. [Online]. Available from: [In Ukrainian].

Borton fenyegeti a KMKSZ elnoket, ha visszater Ukrajnaba. [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Brenzovics Laszlo: Megprobalunk tulelni. [Online]. Available from:>politika/2021/2/1/brenzovics-laszlo-megprobalunk-tulelni-5328 [In Hungarian].

Joe Biden ele kerulhet a karpataljai magyarok helyzete. [Online]. – joe-biden-ele-kerulhet-a-karpataljai-magyarok-helyzete-740 Available from: [In Hungarian].

Szijjarto, P. Magyarorszag elvarja, hogy Ukrajna tiszteletben tartsa a magyar kozosseg jogait. [Online]. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Szijjarto: Elorelepes tortenhet a Karpataljai magyarsag ugyeben. [Online]. – szijjarto-elorelepes-tortenhet-a-karpataljai-magyarsag-ugyeben. Available from: [In Hungarian].

Szijjarto P. Magyarorszag azt szeretne, ha Ukrajna minden teruleten engedelyezne a magyar nyelv hasznalatat. [Online]. – magyarorszag-azt-szeretne-ha- ukrajna-minden-teruleten-engedelyezne-a-magyar-nyelv-hasznalatat. – Available from:: [In Hungarian].