Main Article Content
One of the most interesting phenomena, that were associated with the functioning of the Lebanese power structures, is the principle of consociative (consociational) democracy in the country. It is expressed in the form of political confessionalism. At the same time, the principles of the functioning of political system of Lebanon have experienced and continue to experience significant changes during the almost 80 years of the history of Lebanese Republic. The understanding of the nature and the definition of the stages of this evolution will allow us to get the understanding of the prospects for further political development of this country, which is important for a Middle East region.
The author of the articles hares the opinion of the researchers who believe that Lebanon is gradually transforming from a consociational to a majority democracy. Already at the time of the formation of the Lebanese Republic on the basis of a confessional principle, a declarative recognition of the temporary nature of the using of this principle was announced. In 1990, the amendments made to the Lebanese constitution contained provisions that are creating real opportunities for the implementation of the course of the deconfessionalization. In 2005, a radically new political system of Lebanon was formed on the wave of the Cedar Revolution. Although in the basis, it retains a confessional aspect, however, at the same time it represents a confrontation between wopoly-confessional political blocs. This (2021) year, a very small, but real, anti-confessional opposition political bloc has formed on the wave of mass dissatisfaction with the existing political system in Lebanon. This block plans to take part in the parliamentary elections in 2022. At the same time, the use of a anti-confessional rhetoric is often practiced in the highest political circles of the country. This phenomenon testifies to the growth of the popularity of a above-stated rhetoric. Finally, the influence of the external factors often promotes the overcoming the interfaith barriers by local political elites.
Today, a Lebanese society finds itself half way between a traditional political confessionalism and a non-confessional political pragmatism. This political modus vivendi can be defined as a pragmatic confessionalism.
| Abstract views: 51 | PDF Downloads: 38 |
Sarab’yev, A.V. (2019). Livanskoye obshchestvo glazami maronitskogo patriarkha Bulosa II Meushi: dva doneseniya shveytsarskikh poslov v Beyrute [Lebanese society through the eyes of the Maronite Patriarch Boulos II Meoushi: two reports of Swiss ambassadors to Beirut]. Religiya I obshchestvo na Vostoke [Religion and Society in the East], 3, pp. 328-353. [In Russian].
Makdisi, S., Marktanner, M. (2009). Trapped by consociationalism: The case of Lebanon. Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, 11, [Online]. Available from: http://meea.sites.luc.edu/volume11/PDFS/Paper-by-MakdisiMarktanner.pdf [In English].
Ivashchenko, A.S. (2015). Rol’ konfessional’nogo faktora v obshchestvenno-politicheskoy zhizni Livana (1943-1990 gg.) [Role of a confessional Factor in political life of Lebanon (1943-1990)]. Vestnik Adygeyskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [The Bulletin of the Adyghe State University], Ser. 1, 3, pp. 59-65. [In Russian].
Vorob’yev, S.A. (2020). Krizisy v Livane: istoriya I sovremennost’ [Crises in Lebanon: history and the present]. Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn’ [International Affairs], 6, pp. 112-127. [In Russian].
Lebanon country profile. BBC News. [Online]. Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14647308 [In English].
Rodionov, M.A., Sarab’yev, A.V. (2013). Maronity: traditsii, istoriya, politika [Maronites: traditions, history, a policy]. Moskva: Institut vostokovedeniya RAN. [In Russian].
Belov (Yurtayev), V.I., Savicheva, E.M., Kharitonova, E.V. (2021). Livan i Blizhniy Vostok: factory strategicheskogo vybora (po rezul’tatam polevykh issledovaniy sotsial’nykh predstavleniy arabskoy molodezhi) [Leban on and the MiddleEast: factors of strategic choice (on the results of field studies of social representations of Arab youth)]. Aziya i Afrika segodnya [Asia and Africa today], 3, pp. 14-23. [In Russian].
Traboulsi, F. (2012). A History of Modern Lebanon. 2nd ed. London: Pluto Press. [In English].
el-Khazen, F. (1991). The Communal Pact of National Identities: The Making and Politics of the 1943 National Pact. Oxford: Oxonian Rewley Press Ltd. [In English].
Savicheva, E.M. (2008). Livanskiy krizis: grazhdanskaya voyna I nenadezhnyy mir [The lebanese Crisis: Civil war and unreliable peace]. Vestnik RUDN. Mezhdunarodnyye otnosheniya [Bulletin of PFUR. International relations], 2, pp. 29-39. [In Russian].
Landa, R.G. (2016). Istoriya Livana. XX vek [History of Lebanon. XX century]. Moskva: Institut vostokovedeniya RAN. [In Russian].
(1997). The Lebanese Constitution // Arab Law Quarterly, 2, pp. 224-261. [In English].
Gorbunova, N.M. (2015). Permanentnyy krizis v Livane: rol’ etnokonfessional’nogo faktora [The Permanent crisis in Lebanon: a role of a ethno-confessional factor] // Natsii I natsionalizm na musul’manskom Vostoke [the Nations and nationalism in the Muslim East], eds. V.Ya. Belokrenitskiy, N.Yu. Ul’chenko. Moskva: Institut Vostokovedeniya RAN. pp. 384-390. [In Russian].
Berenkova, N.A. (2018). Prezidentskiy vacuum v Livanev 2014-2016 gg.: krizis ili sledstviye politicheskoy sistemy? [Presidential void in Lebanon 2014-2016: Crisis or effect of political sistem?]. Aziya I Afrika segodnya [Asia and Africa today], 1, pp. 34-40. [In Russian].
Mokhov, N.V. (2008). Nepreodolimyy konfessionalizm Livana [A Insuperable confessionalism of Lebanon]. Aziya I Afrika segodnya [Asia and Africa today], 6, pp. 25-31. [In Russian].
Dubrovskaya, K.V. (2019). Faktory formirovaniya politiki Livana: obshcheye I razlichnoye so stranami blizhnevostochnogo regiona [Common and distinct factors in the policymaking of Lebanon in comparison with other countries in the Middle East]. Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal gumanitarnykh i estestvennykh nauk [International Journal of Humanities and Natural Sciences], 6-2, pp. 101-104. [In Russian].
Chehbouni, Kh. (2007). Understanding Lebanese Confessionalism // Canadians for Justice and Peace in the Middle East, 26, [Online]. Available from: https://www.cjpme.org/fs_026 [In English].
Sarab’yev, A.V. (2017). Transformatsiya livanskoy ummyv 50-60-kh godakh XX veka: otsenki zapadnykh diplomatov [Changes of the Lebanese Muslim ummah in the 1950s-1960s: Assessments of Western diplomats]. Uchenyye zapiski Kazanskogo un-ta. Ser. Gumanit. Nauki [Proceedings of Kazan University. Humanities Series], 6, pp. 1541-1555. [In Russian].
Mokhov, N.V., Mokhova, I.M. (2012). Sovremennyy livanskiy konflikt: genezis, faktory, perspektivy uregulirovaniya [The modern Lebanese conflict: genesis, factors, prospects of settlement]. Etnichnost’ I religiya v sovremennykh konfliktakh [Ethnicity and religion in modern conflicts], eds. V.A. Tishkov, V.A. Shnirel’man. Moskva: Nauka. pp. 203-259. [In Russian].
Gorbunova, N.M. (2013). Livanskiy krizis: transformatsiya obshchestva I gosudarstva [The Lebanese crisis: transformation of a society and the state]. Vostok [Orient], 4, [Online]. Available from: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/livanskiy-krizis-transformatsiya-obschestva-i-gosudarstva [In Russian].
Lebanon. Joshua Project. [Online]. Available from: https://www.joshuaproject.net/countries/LE [In English].
Houssari, N. Hezbollah, Amal Movement vying for control of Shiite religious authority in Lebanon. Arab News. [Online]. Available from: https://www.arabnews.com/node/ 1924661/middle-east [In English].
Kolotusha, V.I. (2013). Skol’ko stoit zhizn’ posla v trotilovom ekvivalente? Beyrutskiye zarisovki, 1986-1990 gg. [How many there is a life of the ambassador in a trotyl equivalent? The Beirut sketches, 1986-1990]. Moskva: Institut vostokovedeniya RAN. [In Russian].
Sattiyev, M. (2013). Problemy konfessionalizma v Livane [The problems of the confessionalism in Lebanon]. Rossiya I musul’manskiy mir [Russia and the Moslem World], 4, pp. 133-136. [In Russian].
The Taif Agreement. [Online]. Available from: https://www.un.int/lebanon/sites/ www.un.int/files/Lebanon/the_taif_agreement_english_version_.pdf [In English].
Ghosn, F., Khoury, A. (2011). Lebanon after the Civil War: Peace or the Illusion of Peace? Middle East, 3, pp. 381-397. [In English].
Shevchenko, V. (2012). Post krizisnyy period razvitiya Livana (1990-2012) [The post crisis period of development of Lebanon (1990-2012)]. Blizhniy Vostok I sovremennost’ [Near East and the present], 46, pp. 250-263. [In Russian].
Seaver, B.M. (2000). The Regional Sources of Power-Sharing Failure: The Case of Lebanon. Political Science Quarterly, 2, pp. 247-271. [In English].
Ahmad, N., Al Maghlouth, N. (2016). Lebanese Political Parties and Administrative Reform: an impossible promise? Beirut: Centre for Lebanese Studies at LAU in collaboration with Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. [In English].
Young, M. An Unlikely Savior. Carnegie Middle East Center - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [Online]. Available from:https://carnegie-mec.org/diwan/85383 [In English].
Chehayeb, K. Lebanon’s PM-designate Saad Hariri resigns as crisis escalates. Politics News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/7/15/lebanon-pm-designate-saad-hariri-resigns-as-crisis-escalates [In English].
Chehayeb, K. Lebanon: NajibMikati named new prime minister-designate. Politics News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/7/26/mikati-appointed-lebanons-new-pm-designate [In English].
Young, M. NajibMikati Has Formed a New Lebanese Government // Carnegie Middle East Center - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [Online]. Available from: https://carnegie-mec.org/diwan/85316 [In English].
Bondarenko, T.Yu. (2008). Formirovaniye natsii v usloviyakh segmentirovannogo obshchestva: primer Livana [Formation of the nation in conditions of the segmented society: an example of Lebanon]. Politicheskaya nauka [PoliticalScience], 1, pp. 167-177. [In Russian].
Gadzhimuradova, G.I., Rabat, L. (2020). Influence of Religious Identity on Lebanon’s Political System. Vostok [Orient], 5, pp. 131-141. [In English].
Sfeir, A.Z. The consequences of Lebanon’s constitutional crisis. Middle East Institute. [Online]. Available from: https://www.mei.edu/publications/consequences-lebanons-constitutional-crisis [In English].
Karam, J.G. (2017). Beyond Sectarianism: Understanding Lebanese Politics through a Cross Sectarian Lens. Middle East Brief, Crown Center for Middle East Studies, 107, pp. 1-10. [In English].
Truyevtsev, K.M. (2020). Globalizatsiya I arabskiy mir: do i posle dvukh voln turbulentnosti [Globalization and the Arabian world: before and after two waves of turbulence]. Moskva: Institutvostokovedeniya RAN. [In Russian].
Bishara, M. A country in freefall: What future for Lebanon? Middle East / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2021/7/19/a-country-in-freefall-what-future-for-lebanon [In English].
Lebanon’s government opponents unite in a bid to topple traditional ruling class // Sawt Beirut International. [Online]. Available from: https://english.sawtbeirut.com/lebanon/lebanons-government-opponents-unite-in-a-bid-to-topple-traditional-ruling-class/ [In English].
Lebanon president calls for proclamation of ‘secular state’. France 24. [Online]. Available from: https://www.france24.com/en/20200830-lebanon-president-calls-for-proclamation-of-secular-state [In English].
Manifest of Hizbullah // Islamic Resistance in Lebanon. [Online]. Available from: http://www.moqawama.org/essaydetailsf.php?eid=16245&fid=47 [In Arabian].
Taymour Jumblatt: Weneed a government that implements reforms, elections under a non-sectarian law. Sawt Beirut International. [Online]. Available from: https://english.sawtbeirut.com/lebanon/taymour-jumblatt-we-need-a-government-that-implements-reforms-elections-under-a-non-sectarian-law/ [In English].
Buller, A. Can Lebanon’s economic ruin bereversed? Bahaa Hariri is counting on it. Sawt Beirut International. [Online]. Available from: https://english.sawtbeirut.com/lebanon/can-lebanons-economic-ruin-be-reversed-bahaa-hariri-is-counting-on-it/ [In English].
Hariri, B. Lebanon’s crises show the worst and best of humanity. Arab News. [Online]. Available from: https://www.arabnews.com/node/1913286 [In English].
Calfat, N.N. (2018). The Frailties of Lebanese Democracy: Outcomes and Limits of the Confessional Framework. Contex to Internacional, 2, pp. 269-293. [In English].
Sarab’yev, A.V. (2019). Livan: obyknovennaya “konsotsional’naya demokratiya” v regional’nom kontekste [Lebanon: An Ordinary “Consociational Democracy” in the Regional Context]. Vestnik MGIMO-Universiteta [MGIMO Review of International Relations], 4, pp. 89-112. [In Russian].
It’s Now or Never: Lebanon Policy Conference Key Takeaways. Middle East Institute. [Online]. Available from: https://www.mei.edu/sites/default/files/2021-06/It%27s%20Now%20or%20 Never%20-%20Lebanon%20Conference%20Policy%20Booklet.pdf [In English].
Houssari, N. Lebanon forms government after 13 months. Arab News. [Online]. Available from: https://www.arabnews.com/node/1926266/middle-east [In English].
Chehayeb, K. Lebanon’s presidency announces government formation. Politics News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/9/10/lebanons-presidency-announces-cabinet-formation [In English].
Berenkova, N.A. (2016). Shiitskiye partii Livana: obshchiye I spetsificheskiye cherty [Shiite parties in Lebanon: general and specific features]. Politicheskaya ekspertiza: POLITEKS [Political Expertise: POLITEX], 1, pp. 44-51. [In Russian].
Bassam, L., Francis, E. With food and fuel, Hezbollah braces for the worst in Lebanon collapse. Reuters. [Online]. Available from: https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/with-food-fuel-hezbollah-braces-worst-lebanon-collapse-2021-04-16/ [In English].
Abi-Nassif, Ch. The unfolding struggle for political survival in Lebanon. Middle East Institute. [Online]. Available from: https://www.mei.edu/publications/unfolding-struggle-political-survival-lebanon [In English].
Ivanova, I.I., Gorbunova, N.M. (2020). Turtsiya i Livan v sisteme regional’nykh protivorechiy i konfliktov na Blizhnem Vostoke [Turkey and Lebanon in the system of regional contradictions and conflict in the Middle East]. Vostochnaya analitika [Eastern Analitycs], 4, pp. 134-153. [In Russian].
Macroncriticises ‘failing’ Lebanonpoliticiansatfundraiser. France News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/8/4/macron-criticises-failing-lebanese-politicians-at-fundraiser [In English].
Qatar to provide aid for Lebanese troops as crisis deepens // News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/7/7/qatar-to-provide-aid-for-lebanese-troops-amid-economic-crisis [In English].
Ender, D. Lebanongets IMF fundinginjection. Howmuchwillithelp? Business and Economy News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Availablefrom: https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2021/9/16/lebanon-gets-imf-funding-injection-how-much-will-it-help [In English].
El Dahan, M., Bassam, L. Lebanon government wins confidence vote as parliament hit by power cut // Reuters.[Online]. Available from: https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/parliament-voting-session-new-lebanon-cabinet-delayed-by-power-cut-2021-09-20/ [In English].
Chehayeb, K. Lebanon: Hezbollah seeks to deflect anger through fuel patronage. Hezbollah News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/9/28/lebanon-hezbollah-fuel-patronage-energy-crisis [In English].
Lebanon’s Hezbollah says Iranian fuel oil to arrive this week. Hezbollah News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/9/13/hezbollah-iranian-tanker-bringing-fuel-to-lebanon-in-syria [In English].
Lebanon’spowerproblems: serioustalkbutnoeasyfixes. Oil and Gas News / Al Jazeera. [Online]. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2021/9/8/lebanons-power-problems-serious-talk-but-no-easy-fixes [In English].
Phoenician Encyclopedia: A Bequest Unearthed, Phoenicia and the Phoenicians, Punic, Canaanites - Encyclopedia Phoeniciana. [Online]. Available from:http://www.phoenicia.org [In English].
Winkler, D.W. (1997). Miaphysitism. A New Term for Use in the History of Dogma and in Ecumenical Theology. The Harp, 3, pp. 33-40. [In English].
Vasil’yev, L.S. (1988). Istoriya religiy Vostoka [History of religions of the east]. Moskva: Vysshaya shkola. [In Russian].
Malerb, M. (1996). Religii chelovechestva [The Religions of the mankind]. Moskva; Sankt-Peterburg: Rudomino “Universitetskaya kniga”. [In Russian].
Sarab’yev, A.V. (2017). Voprosy mezhkonfessional’nykh otnosheniy v Sirii, kotoryye mogli by nazyvat’sya novymi, esliby vsamom dele takovymi yavlyalis’ [Interfaith relation issues in Syria] // ReligiyaiobshchestvonaVostoke [Religion and Society in the East], 1, pp. 126-180. [In Russian].
Kurshakov, g.V. (2012). Shiitskiy factor vovneshney politike Irana [Shia Factor in Current Policies of Islamic Republic of Iran]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnyye otnosheniya [World Economy and International Relations], 11, pp. 24-32. [In Russian].
Sarab’yev, A.V. (2021). Siriyskiy contingent v Livane: k dokumental’noy interpretatsii nachala [Syrian Military Contingent in Lebanon: to the DocumentaryInterpretation of the Beginning]. Vostok [Orient], 2, pp. 134-147. [In Russian].
Young, M. Why Beirut Beckons. Carnegie Middle East Center - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [Online]. Available from: https://carnegie-mec.org/diwan/84404 [In English].