The Republic of Lebanon during 2005-2023: the Achievements of Cedar Revolution and a Heritage of the Syrian Occupation (Part 1)

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At the end of the Cedar Revolution in June 2005, the main its achievements and the main remnants of the Syrian hegemony were finally determined. In the first case, these are the withdrawal of the Syrian troops from the territory of the Republic of Lebanon, the revival of a democratic order in the country and a partial overcoming of a political sectarianism; in the second –the preservation of a political front, which was oriented towards the authoritarian Syria and Iran, the further functioning of the paramilitary wing of Hezbollah, as well as the preservation of the influence of Syria and Iran on Lebanese domestic political life.

All these phenomena exist as the integral components of the Lebanese realities even today. At the same time, the absence of a Syrian occupation and the inviolability of the democratic system can be explained both by a favorable foreign policy situation and by the interest in preserving the status quo on the part of most Lebanese political forces, including Hezbollah and Amal. The tendency to the overcome a Lebanese political sectarianism has gained a further development; In particular, since the middle of the last decade, a new non-sectarian political movement (so-called the Civil society) has been developing in Lebanon.

During 2005-2023, the pre-revolutionary relics underwent changes too. There was a strengthening of the pro-Syrian/pro-Iranian political camp; but today, this camp has begun to surrender its positions. The above-mentioned strengthening should be associated with the preservation of the Hezbollah's paramilitary formations, these are used to the achieve the political goals of this party directly or indirectly. Finally, the situation with the mediated a Syrian and Iranian political presence didn’t remain as static too. So, until 2011, the primacy in this matter belonged to Syria, but in the further development of the events it passed to Iran, which acts through Hezbollah. At the same time, the hereditary Syrian dictator B. al-Assad, is trying to renew his influence on Lebanese affairs, as the his position in his own country strengthens.


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Zelinskyi, A. (2023) “The Republic of Lebanon during 2005-2023: the Achievements of Cedar Revolution and a Heritage of the Syrian Occupation (Part 1)”, Problems of World History, (21), pp. 176–195. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2023-21-9.
Author Biography

A. Zelinskyi

Zelinskyi Andriy – Doctor of Historical Sciences, Senior Research Fellow, Leading Research Fellow of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.


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