Problems of Social and Economic Modernization of Kazakhstan

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Abstract

The article analyzes the features of the socio-economic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan after gaining independence in 1991. It is noted that historically the economy of Kazakhstan for many decades was formed as a raw material base for the unified national economic complex of the USSR. Under the conditions of independence, the raw materials industries, primarily the fuel and energy and mining and metallurgical complexes became the basis for the socio-economic development of Kazakhstan, thanks to which the country made an economic breakthrough and deeply integrated into the world economy. Kazakhstan is the leader among the post-Soviet countries in terms of the volume of attracted foreign direct investment, which contributed to the increase in the extraction of natural resources, the construction of new industrial enterprises and infrastructure facilities. The most important trade and investment partners of Kazakhstan are the European Union, the Russian Federation, China and the United States. At the same time, despite the geographical proximity, common social and ethnocultural features, only 4.9% of Kazakhstan’s foreign trade falls on the neighboring countries of Central Asia.


The dependence of Kazakhstan on the sale of raw materials, the low investment attractiveness of the manufacturing industries make the country’s economy vulnerable to changes in the situation in the commodity markets, periodically lead to an aggravation of the socio-economic situation. In the structure of Kazakhstani exports, about 70% are products of the extractive industry. A problem in the development of the energy sector is the limited supply routes for energy carriers to world markets. The issue of changing the model of economic growth through the development of high-tech sectors of industry and support for small and medium-sized businesses is extremely relevant. The system of public administration, which is too bureaucratic and cumbersome, also needs to improve efficiency. Also, a reform of social policy is ripe, which should be aimed at increasing social support for citizens. It is necessary to change the strategy for the development of regions, primarily with regard to the creation of jobs and the reduction of regional imbalances.

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How to Cite
Demenko, O. (2021) “Problems of Social and Economic Modernization of Kazakhstan”, Problems of World History, (16), pp. 213-232. doi: 10.46869/2707-6776-2021-16-10.

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Articles
Author Biography

O. Demenko

Demenko Oleksandr – Ph.D. in Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Scientific Secretary of the State Institution “Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine”.

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